flash memory

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Related to Nand memory: EMMC

flash memory

[¦flash ′mem·rē]
(computer science)
A type of electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). While EPROM is reprogrammed bit-by-bit, flash memory is reprogrammed in blocks, making it faster. It is nonvolatile.

flash memory

flash memory

(1) For Adobe's multimedia authoring and playback system, see Flash.

(2) Flash memory is the most popular non-volatile, rewritable storage chip. Comprised of cells that hold a charge without power, flash memory is extremely durable and used in just about every electronic device, including cameras, smartphones, tablets, music players and USB drives. It is also the storage component in solid state drives (SSDs), which increasingly replace hard drives in computers and servers. All flash memory eventually wears out, but most users will have many years of service (see SSD write cycle). See solid state drive.

Evolving from the EEPROM chip, flash was invented by Toshiba in the mid-1980s and named after its ability to erase a block of data "in a flash." However, this block erasing is its least desirable feature because it adds a step. To change what is stored in flash memory, the cells must first be erased in blocks ranging from 16KB to 512KB in length. Then the cells can be written.

NOR Flash for Execution
NOR flash is used for program execution similar to RAM. Introduced by Intel in 1988, NOR supports one-byte random access, which means a program's instructions are executed directly from the NOR flash the same way computers execute instructions in RAM. Unlike RAM, NOR flash does not require power to hold its content. See computer and RAM.

NAND Flash for Storage
Toshiba developed the less costly NAND flash in 1989. It has denser cells and faster erasing and writing than NOR. For example, in a digital camera, an internal NOR chip holds the software, but the removable memory cards are composed of NAND chips. In a computer, a translation layer makes a NAND flash solid state drive (SSD) function like a hard drive for both program and data storage (see FTL). Just like a hard drive, instructions in a program are first read into RAM and then executed. For more on flash architecture, see EEPROM, NAND flash and MLC. See charge trap flash, USB drive, memory card, solid state drive, flash BIOS, early memories and future memory chips.


From Spinning Platters to Flash
Slowly but surely, flash-based solid state drives (SSDs) are replacing the computer's hard drives for storage. Not only are SSDs faster, there is no read/write head to accidentally scratch a platter's surface (see head crash). See solid state drive.







USB Drives "Are" Flash Memory
The ubiquitous USB drives are not much more than a NAND flash memory chip.







Memory Cards Are the Camera's "Film"
NAND flash memory cards such as this 16GB SD Card are used in all modern cameras and camcorders. SD Cards are very popular, and they can hold up to 512GB. See SD Card and memory card.







Disk Pack Storage - 1970s
The SD Card example in the digital camera above holds eight times more storage than all the disk drives in this room full of ICL computers. See disk pack. (Images courtesy of The National Museum of Computing, Milton Keynes, U.K., www.tnmoc.org)







Flash For Sale
This 2014 Micro Center ad highlighted the flash memory products people use every day. Class 10 SD Cards means a minimum of 10 MBytes/sec write speed for HD video recording. See SD Card classes. (Image courtesy of Micro Center, www.microcenter.com)
References in periodicals archive ?
Through our continued investment in IMFT, we're delivering leadership technology and manufacturing that enable the most cost-effective and reliable NAND memory," says Tom Rampone, vice president and general manager, Intel NAND Solutions Group.
Customers now have access to high-quality IP that enables them to quickly deploy Toggle-mode DDR NAND memory in their product designs, and maximize the benefits of its high-performance and low power features," said Robert Pierce, senior director of NAND Flash IP at Denali Software.
Samsung is applying 64Gb high-performance NAND memory using its 10nm-class technology to the new 64GB eMMC Pro Class 2000 memory solution.
Kingston co-founder, David Sun, pointed out that the company will work to increase shipment of NAND memory modules this year at a time when memory-module demand is shifting toward NAND from DRAM to reflect the growing replacement of smartphones and tablet PCs for netbooks.
lt;p>Among the factors differentiating NAND memory quality is whether it is SLC or MLC memory.
Offering a five-fold increase in data write-and-erase cycles over standard SLC flash memory, SamsungCOs new server-grade SLC NAND memory is designed to be used in SSDs to greatly extend the life cycle of any high-transaction data processing server.
The ultra high-speed storage device uses Samsung's 64-gigabit (Gb) NAND memory with a toggle DDR 2.
1 since it first came out last year for a wide variety of applications," noted Scott Beekman, director of managed NAND memory products for TAEC.
Currently, most of the world's leading suppliers of graphics chips, chipsets, dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips, and NAND memory chips have contracted the island's chip packagers and testers to make their chips.
However, the long term decline in the cost of NAND memory will translate into lower price points for SSDs.
Worldwide Computer Products News-30 May 2008-Intel and Micron introduce sub-40nm NAND memory device(C)1995-2008 M2 COMMUNICATIONS LTD http://www.
The new eMMC's fully managed NAND memory comes with its own high performance controller and intelligent flash management firmware.