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(nän`jĭng`) or


(năn`kĭng`) [southern capital], city (1994 est. pop. 2,224,200), capital of Jiangsu prov., E central China, in a bend of the Chang (Yangtze) River. It has served at times in the past as capital of China. The second largest city in the region (after Shanghai), Nanjing is at the intersection of three major railroad lines. Industry, which once centered around "nankeen" cloth (unbleached cotton goods), was vigorously developed under the Communist government. The city now has an integrated iron-steel complex, an oil refinery, food-processing establishments, and hundreds of plants making chemicals, textiles, cement, fertilizers, machinery, weapons, electronic equipment, optical instruments, photographic equipment, and trucks. Nanjing has long been celebrated as a literary and political center. It was the capital of China from the 3d to 6th cent. A.D. and again from 1368 to 1421. The Treaty of Nanjing, signed in 1842 at the end of the Opium War, opened China to foreign trade. During the Taiping RebellionTaiping Rebellion,
1850–64, revolt against the Ch'ing (Manchu) dynasty of China. It was led by Hung Hsiu-ch'üan, a visionary from Guangdong who evolved a political creed and messianic religious ideology influenced by elements of Protestant Christianity.
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 insurgents held the city from 1853 to 1864. It was captured by the revolutionists in 1911, and in 1912 it became the capital of China's first president, Sun Yat-senSun Yat-sen
, Mandarin Sun Wen, 1866–1925, Chinese revolutionary. He was born near Guangzhou into a farm-owning family. He attended (1879–82) an Anglican boys school in Honolulu, where he came under Western influence, particularly that of Christianity.
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. When in 1927 the city fell to the Communists, the foreign residents fled to the protection of British and American warships on the Chang River. The Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek
, 1887–1975, Chinese Nationalist leader. He was also called Chiang Chung-cheng.

After completing military training with the Japanese Army, he returned to China in 1911 and took part in the revolution against the Manchus (see Ch'ing).
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 retook the city, and it became (1928) the regular Nationalist capital. In 1932, when the Japanese were threatening to attack the city, the government was temporarily removed to Luoyang, and on Nov. 21, 1937, just before Nanjing fell to the Japanese, it was moved to Chongqing. The Japanese entry into the city, accompanied by widespread killing and brutality, became known as the "rape of Nanking." The Japanese established (1938) their puppet regime in Nanjing. Chinese forces reoccupied the city Sept. 5, 1945, and the capitulation of the Japanese armies in China was signed there on Sept. 9. Nanjing again fell to the Communists in Apr., 1949, and from 1950 until 1952, when it became the provincial capital, Nanjing was administered as part of an autonomous region. The city has many institutions of higher learning, notably Nanjing Univ. and Nanjing Institute of Technology. The Nanjing Military Academy is there. The city is also noted for its library, and its astronomical observatory and botanical gardens are among China's largest. The original city wall (70 ft/21 m high), most of which still stands, dates from the Ming dynasty and encircles most of the modern city. The tomb of the first Ming emperor is approached by an avenue lined with colossal images of men and animals. Also of interest are the tomb of Sun Yat-sen, a memorial to China's war dead (a steel pagoda), the Taiping museum, and the 89-story Zifeng Tower (2010). A 4-mi (6.4 km), two-level railway and road bridge was completed across the Chang in 1968.


See I. Chang, The Rape of Nanking (1997).


, Nanking, Nan-ching
a port in E central China, capital of Jiangsu province, on the Yangtze River: capital of the Chinese empire and a literary centre from the 14th to 17th centuries; capital of Nationalist China (1928--37); site of a massacre of about 300 000 civilians by the invading Japanese army in 1937; university (1928). Pop.: 2 806 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Beijing :Sirens wailed in China's Nanjing city on Thursday, 75 years after Japanese troops embarked on mass killing and rape, as a modern-day territorial row between the two saw Tokyo scrambling fighter jets.
Guo Cairu, of Nanjing city, Jiangsu province, has just been chosen as torch runner for the upcoming 10th National Games,and hopes to beat the current centenarians' 100 metre record, held by South African Philip Babinowitz with a time of 30.
Jiangsu Province's Nanjing City is home to the simulating compulsory fitted earth station of China's pioneering satellite communications project 311, while Shanghai Municipality boasts the National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base and China's first satellite navigation application industry base.
Taking place on January 24 at the Rialto in Limassol, the Embassy of the People's Republic of China will celebrate Chinese New Year (which, in 2018 -- the Year of the Dog -- takes place on February 16) with the Song and Dance Theatre in Nanjing City group, which is set to present its unique, one-night only show packed with eastern colour, movement and sound.
CSCEC Subsidiary Wins PPP Project for Affordable Housing Project in Nanjing City
The deal was announced by Huang Lixin, member of the standing committee of Jiangsu Province and Party Secretary of Nanjing City, after a visit to CCA's 30,000 sq ft facility.
TOKYO, June 9 (KUNA) -- An explosion ripped through an oil refinery and triggered a fire in eastern Chinese Nanjing city, Monday, state-run Xinhua News Agency reported.
10 (BNA) -- Bahrain hand ball and athletics delegations arrived in Nanjing City, China, to take part in the second Asian Youth Games, scheduled to start on Wednesday (Aug14) and run until August 24.
The prestigious 2nd Asian Youth Games 2013 will take place from August 16-24 in Nanjing city of China.
According to China Radio International, the vessel, the Xianghuamen, is owned by Yuanyang Shipping Company in eastern China's Nanjing city and was sailing with a crew of 28.
At the grand opening ceremony of Taishin Financial Leasing (China), Ji Jianye, mayor of the People's Government of Nanjing City said it's very rewarding for Taiwan's financial institutions to invest in Nanjing, which is smaller than such municipalities as Beijing and Shanghai.
Wu Chen, a university student in east China's Nanjing City, said she was a "net bargainer" during her summer vacation, earning her 3,000 yuan per month.