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China: see NanjingNanjing
or Nanking
[southern capital], city (1994 est. pop. 2,224,200), capital of Jiangsu prov., E central China, in a bend of the Chang (Yangtze) River. It has served at times in the past as capital of China.
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a city in China, located on the right bank of the lower Yangtze River. A major national economic and cultural center. Capital of Kiangsu Province. Population, 1,670,000 (1965, estimate).

Nanking is an important transportation junction, with a river port accessible to oceangoing ships. A two-tiered railroad and highway bridge spans the Yangtze at Nanking. Local industrial products include machine tools, turbines, electronic instruments, electrical equipment, trucks, agricultural machinery, metal products, chemicals (particularly chemical fertilizers and synthetic fibers), cement, textiles, and food. A thermal electric power plant is located in the city. Nanking is a scientific and cultural center, with a university, eight other institutions of higher education, a museum, an observatory, a botanical garden, and a zoo.

Nanking was founded in 472 B.C. At various times it was known as Chinling, Moling, Chienyeh, Chienk’ang, and Kiangning. Beginning in the third century A.D., it served as the capital for such major feudal dynasties as the Wu (third century) and the Eastern Chin, Liu-Sung, Southern Ch’i, Liang, and Ch’en (fourth through sixth centuries). Nanking was also the capital of China during the initial period of the rule of the Ming dynasty (1368–1421). From 1421 to 1911 it was the center of the Chiangnan vicegerency (Kiangsu, Kianghsi, and Anhwei provinces). From March 1853 through 1864, under the name of T’ienching (“heavenly capital”), it was the capital of the state established during the Taiping uprising.

Nanking was a leading center of the bourgeois Hsin-hai Revolution (1911–13); from the end of December 1911 until April 1912 it was the capital of China’s first republican government, led by Sun Yat-sen. From April 1912 until 1927, Nanking was the capital of Kiangsu Province. After Chiang Kai’shek’s counterrevolutionary coup, of Apr. 12, 1927, the city became China’s capital. In December 1937, Nanking fell to the Japanese and from 1940 to 1945 was the site of the puppet government set up by the Japanese and headed by Wang Ching-wei. Again from 1946 through 1949, Nanking served as the sent of government of the Republic of China. The city was liberated from the Kuomintang by the People’s Liberation Army on Apr. 23, 1949.

Nanking has an irregular layout. The Imperial City, built in the 14th and 15th centuries according to an elaborate plan and surrounded by a massive stone wall in 1400, is located in the eastern part of the city. Noteworthy architectural monuments of Nanking include the stone Porcelain Pagoda of the Ch’ihsia-shih temple, built during the tenth century; the Wu-liang-tien, a beamless brick temple, constructed in 1398 within the Ling-koshih temple; portions of the city wall that date from the Ming era (from the 14th through the 17th centuries); the imperial tombs of the Liang dynasty (ruled A.D. 502–557); with their monumental stone statuary of fantastic animals; the tomb of Chu Yüan-chang (14th century), with stone figures of officials, warriors, and animals; and the tomb of Sun Yat-sen, constructed 1926–29.


Sushkina, N. N. U drevnikh pamiatnikov. Moscow, 1959.


, Nanking, Nan-ching
a port in E central China, capital of Jiangsu province, on the Yangtze River: capital of the Chinese empire and a literary centre from the 14th to 17th centuries; capital of Nationalist China (1928--37); site of a massacre of about 300 000 civilians by the invading Japanese army in 1937; university (1928). Pop.: 2 806 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Although this is a simple story, dealing with a few hours in the lives of the survivors in Nanking, it is a film of great power and strength.
The story revolves around American mortician John Miller (Christian Bale) who arrives in Nanking shortly after the invasion to bury the head priest of a convent school.
Toe hy hoor hoe maklik die wondervegters van die vaderland die Nanking ingeneem het, het hy in die straat afgehardloop en 'n vlag met die opkomende son soos 'n gloeiende vuurbal daarop, hoog bo sy kop geswaai terwyl hy uit voile bors juig: "Banzai
If we are going to honor the dead at Hiroshima, we must also honor the dead from the Bataan Death March, the Rape of Nanking and Unit 731.
TAIEX: 2409; NYSE: AUO) has scheduled its 2009 Q2 Investor Conference for Jul 23, 2009 at 14:00 (GMT+08:00) at Yong Foo (B3), The Westin Taipei, B3, 133 Nanking East Road, Sec.
As its title suggests, this film is less about the Japanese massacre of civilians in Nanking (aka Nanjing) in 1937 than about the struggle between those who insist it be remembered and those who want it erased from history.
Honored at the Sundance Film Festival in 2007 for its direction, Nanking entered theatrical distribution last year and made its cable television debut on HBO this year.
The well documented destruction of human life in Nanking, where a log jam of bodies blocked the River Yangtze, is just one city of many that the invaders put to the sword.
Naive but possessing a passion for social justice, Hogg lands in smoldering Nanking and witnesses atrocities beyond belief.
Hunan TV, Changsha based broadcaster covers South East China with 150 million households from Guangdong to Nanking.
Iris Chang's suicide in 2004 at age 36 made no sense: she had a loving family and everything to live for--even fame and fortune--so many wondered if she'd been murdered over her controversial book The Rape of Nanking.
Nightingale singing--gale of Nanking Sing--mystery of Ming-dynasty sing ing in Ming Syringa Myringa Singer Song-winged sing-wing syringa ringer Song-wing sing long syringa lingerer (80)