nanotechnology

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nanotechnology:

see micromechanicsmicromechanics,
the combination of minuscule electrical and mechanical components in a single device less than 1 mm across, such as a valve or a motor. Although micromechanical production processes and applications are still in the developmental stage, efforts have begun to
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nanotechnology

[¦nan·ō·tek′näl·ə·jē]
(engineering)
Systems for transforming matter, energy, and information that are based on nanometer-scale components with precisely defined molecular features.
Techniques that produce or measure features less than 100 nanometers in size.

Nanotechnology

Systems for transforming matter, energy, and information, based on nanometer-scale components with precisely defined molecular features. The term nan-otechnology has also been used more broadly to refer to techniques that produce or measure features less than 100 nanometers in size; this meaning embraces advanced microfabrication and metrology. Although complex systems with precise molecular features cannot be made with existing techniques, they can be designed and analyzed. Studies of nanotechnology in this sense remain theoretical, but are intended to guide the development of practical technological systems.

Nanotechnology based on molecular manufacturing requires a combination of familiar chemical and mechanical principles in unfamiliar applications. Molecular manufacturing can exploit mechanosynthesis, that is, using mechanical devices to guide the motions of reactive molecules. By applying the conventional mechanical principle of grasping and positioning to conventional chemical reactions, mechanosynthesis can provide an unconventional ability to cause molecular changes to occur at precise locations in a precise sequence. Reliable positioning is required in order for mechanosynthetic processes to construct objects with millions to billions of precisely arranged atoms.

Mechanosynthetic systems are intended to perform several basic functions. Their first task is to acquire raw materials from an externally provided source, typically a liquid solution containing a variety of useful molecular species. The second task is to process these raw materials through steps that separate molecules of different kinds, bind them reliably to specific sites, and then (often) transform them into highly active chemical species, such as radicals, carbenes, and strained alkenes and alkynes. Finally, mechanical devices can apply these bound, active species to a workpiece in a controlled position and orientation and can deposite or remove a precise number of atoms of specific kinds at specific locations.

Several technologies converge with nanotechnologies, the most important being miniaturization of semiconductor structures, driven by progress in microelectronics. More directly relevant are efforts to extend chemical synthesis to the construction of larger and more complex molecular objects. Protein engineering and supramolecular chemistry are active fields that exploit weak intermolecular forces to organize small parts into larger structures. Scanning probe microscopes are used to move individual atoms and molecules.

nanotechnology

/nan'-oh-tek-no"l*-jee/ Any fabrication technology in which objects are designed and built by the specification and placement of individual atoms or molecules or where at least one dimension is on a scale of nanometers.

The first unequivocal nanofabrication experiments took place in 1990, for example with the deposition of individual xenon atoms on a nickel substrate to spell the logo of a certain very large computer company.

Nanotechnology has been a hot topic in the hacker subculture ever since the term was coined by K. Eric Drexler in his book "Engines of Creation", where he predicted that nanotechnology could give rise to replicating assemblers, permitting an exponential growth of productivity and personal wealth.

See also nanobot.

http://lucifer.com/~sean/Nano.html.

nanotechnology

The science of developing materials at the atomic and molecular level in order to imbue them with special electrical and chemical properties. Nanotechnology, which deals with devices typically less than 100 nanometers in size, is making a significant contribution to the fields of computer storage, semiconductors, biotechnology, manufacturing and energy.

In the future, amazing nanotech-based products are expected, including extraordinarily tiny computers that are very powerful, building materials that withstand earthquakes, advanced systems for drug delivery and custom-tailored pharmaceuticals as well as the elimination of invasive surgery, because repairs can be made from within the body.

One Person Can Make a Breakthrough
Larry Bock, CEO of Nanosys, who helped launch more than a dozen successful biotech companies in his career, said that nanotech will impact even more industries than biotech. In an excerpted article from the March 2003 Nanotech Report, he compared nanotechnology with microelectronics. Bock said that "a single chemistry graduate student can create novel devices and device architectures not even imaginable or manufacturable by today's biggest microprocessor companies. That is because these devices are fabricated chemically, or from the bottom up. Existing microelectronics technology is fabricated by etching wafers, or from the top down." See AFM, STM, Buckyball, nanotube and MEMS.


Fixing One Cell at a Time
By 2020, scientists at Rutgers University believe that nano-sized robots will be injected into the bloodstream and administer a drug directly to an infected cell. This robot has a carbon nanotube body, a biomolecular motor that propels it and peptide limbs to orient itself. Because it is composed of biological elements such as DNA and proteins, it will be easily removed from the body. (Image courtesy of the Bio-Nano Robotics team at Rutgers University: Constantinos Mavroidis, Martin L. Yarmush, Atul Dubey, Angela Thornton, Kevin Nikitczuk, Silvina Tomassone, Fotios Papadimitrakopoulos and Bernie Yurke.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Listed below are the nano tech 2013 exhibitor profiles.
The program provides grants assistance for eligible Victorian companies to attend recognised overseas conferences, trade events and meetings like Nano Tech 2013 with regulatory authorities.
According to Professor Tomoji Kawai, chairman, Nano Tech Executive Committee, "FEI has been a major contributor to the science of nanotechnology since its inception.
An extensive lineup of Keynote addresses, from companies such as: Continental Airlines, Lockheed Martin, NREL, Exelon, and many others, will provide the insights of top executives from the largest companies in the world -- who are actively involved in some of the most significant projects across the clean, bio and nano tech industries.
ENS), an advanced materials company, announced today the Company is the recipient of Nano Science and Technology Institute's (NSTI) Early Stage Company Award, which was announced last week at Nano Tech 2005 in Tokyo, Japan.
The thousands of presentations we've scheduled feature prominent executives at some of the largest companies in the world, who are each playing an active role in some of the most innovative projects across the clean, bio and nano tech industries," said Dr.
As part of the partnership, the NanoBusiness Alliance and the nano tech executive committee of nanotech2004 will mutually drive exhibitors and attendance toward each other's exhibitions, conferences and other events, co-develop programming and speaking opportunities, and establish international nanotechnology networks.
At the University of Michigan alone there is more than $750 million of research being done on campus at any given time, including extensive work in the micro and nano tech arena," said Joe Giachino, Director of External Programs, Center for Wireless Integrated MicroSystems (WIMS), an NSF Engineering Research Center at the College of Engineering at the University of Michigan.
based Nano Scale is an accepted nano-tech provider under the National Nano Tech Initiative approved by President Bush.