National Gallery

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National Gallery,

London, one of the permanent national art collections of Great Britain, est. 1824. The nucleus of museum was the 38-picture collection of the late English banker John Julius Angerstein, which was purchased by the House of Commons; it was initially displayed at Angerstein's former Pall Mall home. The National Gallery's main building, erected (1832–38) and designed in Greek style by William Wilkins, stands in Trafalgar Square. The structure was shared for 30 years with the Royal Academy of ArtsRoyal Academy of Arts,
London, the national academy of art of England, founded in 1768 by George III at the instigation of Sir William Chambers and Benjamin West. Sir Joshua Reynolds was the Academy's first president, holding the office until his death in 1792.
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. In 1876 a new wing was added, designed by E. M. Barry. The gallery is rich in Italian paintings of the 15th and 16th cent. and has fine collections of French, Flemish, and Dutch masters. The National Portrait Gallery, whose collection dates from 1858, has adjoined the National Gallery since 1896. The Sainsbury Wing, designed by American architect Robert VenturiVenturi, Robert,
1925–, American architect, b. Philadelphia. In his writings, Venturi inveighed against the banality of modern architecture in the postwar period. He argued instead for a more inclusive, contextual approach to design that heralded the postmodern era in
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 to display the National Gallery's early Renaissance collection, opened in 1991. The Tate GalleryTate Gallery,
London, originally the National Gallery of British Art. The original building (in Millbank on the former site of Millbank Prison), with a collection of 65 modern British paintings, was given by Sir Henry Tate and was opened in 1897.
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, which originally controlled by the National Gallery, attained complete independence in 1955 by an act of Parliament.

National Gallery

 

in London, one of the world’s best collections of 18th- and 19th-century Western European painting. It was founded in 1824, based on the collection of J. J. Angerstein.

The National Gallery has works by Duccio, Paolo Uccello, Piero della Francesca, and C. Crivelli. The gallery houses such masterpieces as Giovanni Bellini’s The Doge Leonardo Loredan Full-face; Leonardo da Vinci’s cartoon St. Anne and The Virgin of the Rocks; Titian’s Portrait of a Man, The Death of Actaeon, and Madonna and Child; G. B. Moroni’s The Tailor; J. van Eyck’s Wedding Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and JeanneCenami; H. Holbein the Younger’s Christina of Denmark, Duchess of Milan and French Ambassadors; Rembrandt’s A Woman Bathing in a Stream; P. de Hooch’s Courtyard of a House in Delft; M. Hobbema’s The Avenue at Middelharnis;

D. Velásquez’ The Toilet of Venus; T. Gainsborough’s Mrs. Sid-dons and The Morning Walk; W. Hogarth’s The Shrimp Girl, J. Constable’s The Haywain; P. Cézanne’s large painting The Bathers; J. Seurat’s The Bathers; and van Gogh’s The Sunflowers.

The present classical-style building of the National Gallery was constructed in the 1830’s according to a design by W. Wilkins.

REFERENCES

Kuznetsova, I. Natsional’naia galereia: London (album). Moscow [1971].
Hendy, P. The National Gallery London. London [1960].
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