National Labor Relations Board


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Acronyms, Wikipedia.
Related to National Labor Relations Board: Department of Labor, National Labor Relations Act

National Labor Relations Board

(NLRB), independent agency of the U.S. government created under the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (Wagner Act), and amended by the acts of 1947 (Taft-Hartley Labor ActTaft-Hartley Labor Act,
1947, passed by the U.S. Congress, officially known as the Labor-Management Relations Act. Sponsored by Senator Robert Alphonso Taft and Representative Fred Allan Hartley, the act qualified or amended much of the National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act of
..... Click the link for more information.
) and 1959 (Landrum-Griffin ActLandrum-Griffin Act,
1959, passed by the U.S. Congress, officially known as the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act. It resulted from hearings of the Senate committee on improper activities in the fields of labor and management, which uncovered evidence of collusion
..... Click the link for more information.
), which affirmed labor's right to organize and bargain collectively through representatives of their own choice or to refrain from such activities. The board of five members (appointed by the U.S. President with the approval of the Senate for five-year terms) is assisted by 33 regional directors. This board determines proper bargaining units, conducts elections for union representation, and investigates charges of unfair labor practices by employers. Unfair practices include interference, coercion, or restraint in labor's self-organizational rights; interference with the formation of labor unions; encouraging or discouraging membership in a union; and refusal to bargain collectively with a duly chosen employee representative. The NLRB does not have the power to consider cases involving real estate brokers, agricultural employees, domestic workers, family workers, government employees, and church-run schools.

History

The Wagner Act, which established the NLRB, was validated by the Supreme Court in 1937. The NLRB functioned during World War II, but labor relations were mainly handled by the National War Labor Board (WLB), which existed from 1942 until 1945. A 12-man body, with the public, management, and labor equally represented, the WLB soon shifted from arbitration to formulating policies.

With the passage in 1947 of the Taft-Hartley Labor Act (also known as the Labor-Management Relations Act), the NLRB was converted into a purely judicial body, with the prosecution of unfair labor practices transferred to a general counsel. The board's action was dependent upon the filing by the union chiefs of affidavits proving that they were not Communists and of complete financial data. The NLRB's field of investigation was extended to cover the following practices as unfair to employers: refusal to bargain collectively, coercing employers in the selection of their bargaining agency, persuading employers to discriminate against certain employees, and conducting secondary boycotts or jurisdictional strikes.

In 1959 the Taft-Hartley Labor Act was amended by the Landrum-Griffin Act (also known as the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act), which repealed the requirement that a union must file a non-Communist affidavit and a financial report in order to obtain a hearing before the NLRB. The act also gave the states permission to assume jurisdiction over cases that the NLRB declined, even when interstate commerce was involved. Organizational and recognition picketing (i.e., picketing of companies where another union is already recognized) were made unlawful, and the NLRB general counsel was required to seek an injunction against such picketing if a violation was proved.

The Landrum-Griffin Act also affected policies of the board. It banned secondary boycott pressures and, with some exceptions, outlawed so-called hot-cargo agreements (i.e., express or implied contracts that prevent employers from doing business with persons declared off limits by unions). The NLRB's power was subsequently extended to postal workers (1970) and private health care institutions (1974), but a number of court rulings have reduced the board's power. During the 1980s organized labor attacked the NLRB for being pro-employer.

Bibliography

See bibliography under labor lawlabor law,
legislation dealing with human beings in their capacity as workers or wage earners. The Industrial Revolution, by introducing the machine and factory production, greatly expanded the class of workers dependent on wages as their source of income.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

National Labor Relations Board

independent agency of U.S. government, supporting labor’s right to organize. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 1887]
See: Labor
References in periodicals archive ?
We believe that a secret ballot election that is conducted by the National Labor Relations Board is the surest way to protect and respect these employee rights.
Petitioning the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) set in motion mechanisms defined by law that are different from those that we are accustomed to using day by day.
Cabot: The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) historically has maintained that nurses involved in patient care activities are not supervisors on grounds that a nurse's duties performed in connection with patient care are not acts performed in the interest of the employer.
Overnite was informed in a letter from Martin Arlook, Regional Director of Region 10 of the National Labor Relations Board in Atlanta, that employees of Overnite's Decatur Service Center have filed a petition with the board indicating that "a substantial number of employees assert that the certified or currently recognized bargaining representative is no longer their representative.
CONTACT: Daniel Silverman of the National Labor Relations Board, 212-264-0330, or fax, 212-264-8427/
The National Labor Relations Board is a federal government agency that works to prevent and remedy unfair labor practices by employers and labor unions.
Union representatives have filed charges with the National Labor Relations Board, alleging that the MPTF improperly changed employees' wages.
SFS), a global leader in IT infrastructure services for business and government applications, today announced that the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) has selected SAVVIS IT Utility Services as the solution to consolidate the NLRB's entire IT infrastructure.
The vote was 381-108 in the election, supervised by the National Labor Relations Board, that affects more than 580 registered nurses at the medical center's two hospitals.
The Santa Barbara News-Press has filed an unfair labor practice charge with the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) against the Teamsters Union for engaging in illegal picketing which was threatening and coercive secondary activity in violation of the National Labor Relations Act.
In a dispute that has simmered since June 29, the sides have bickered about representation issues, culminating with the union filing an unfair labor charge with the National Labor Relations Board, alleging that the studio reduced benefits of writers for the show ``Jimmy Neutron, Boy Genius.
The Santa Barbara News-Press has filed an unfair labor practice charge with the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) against the Teamsters Union for threatening and coercive secondary activities directed at its distributors in violation of the National Labor Relations Act.

Encyclopedia browser ?
Full browser ?