National Language


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National Language

 

the language of a nation (natsiia, nation in the historical sense) that has evolved from the language of a nationality (narodnost’) during the process of that nationality’s development into a nation. The intensiveness of this process depends on the rate and special conditions of the development of a nationality into a nation among various peoples.

A national language is a system of several forms of a language: the literary language (oral and written), popular conversational varieties of the language, and dialects. In the course of the formation of a national language, the relationship between literary language and dialect undergoes a substantial change. The national literary language is the most important developing form of a language; it gradually supplants the dialects that dominated the earlier stages of language development, especially in oral communication. Under the influence of a literary language, the formation of new dialectal features comes to an end and a leveling of clear-cut dialectal differences occurs. At the same time, the literary language gains wider acceptance and application and its functions become more complex. The literary form of a language becomes dominant as a result of the increasing complexity and development of the national culture of a people. The literary language, basing itself on the language of the people, supplants written languages that are alien to the people, such as Latin in Western Europe and Church Slavonic in Russia. The national literary language also becomes the standard for oral communication, where previously dialect was dominant.

An extremely important characteristic of a national literary language is its normalizing tendency. In order to satisfy the increasingly complex and diverse needs of society that arise from the development of literature, journalism, and science and technology, as well as from the emergence of various forms of oral speech, the syntactic system and vocabulary of a national literary language develop intensively and become enriched.

In bourgeois society, the national literary language serves primarily the dominant stratum of society, that is, its educated classes. As a rule, the rural population continues to use dialects, while in cities, urban dialects compete with the literary language. In socialist nations, as a result of the democratization of society and the widespread dissemination of education, a uniform, normalized, universally accepted national literary language becomes the property of every member of the nation.

REFERENCE

Voprosy formirovaniia i razvitiia natsional’nykh iazykov. Moscow, 1960.

M. M. GUKHMAN

References in classic literature ?
There are faces which nature charges with a meaning and pathos not belonging to the single human soul that flutters beneath them, but speaking the joys and sorrows of foregone generations--eyes that tell of deep love which doubtless has been and is somewhere, but not paired with these eyes--perhaps paired with pale eyes that can say nothing; just as a national language may be instinct with poetry unfelt by the lips that use it.
The chairperson said she had tabled a bill in the parliament seeking status of national language for regional languages which was rejected due to difference of opinion.
The verdict also asked the governments to consider and implement the three-month timeline, given by the government itself in a July 6, 2015, letter to all government departments, and directed the federal and the provincial governments to coordinate with each other for uniformity in the aACAyrasmulkhat', or font style of the national language.
Spokesperson of National Language Authority (NLA), Dr.
Article 251(1)The national language of Pakistan is Urdu and arrangements shall be made for its being used for official and other purposes within fifteen years from the commencing day.
Hindi is the national language of India; therefore, it should be given its due importance and should be recognized as such.
IT MAY be the country's unofficial national language, but speaking in Hindi seems to be a strict no in Orissa Assembly.
In many countries with multiple languages, elementary school is taught in the local language with the national language a major course in the curriculum.
He has delved into that area for some years now, and here explores not just the problems of a national language in Japan, but also the problems caused by the idea of a national language.
LANGUAGE experts at Nant Gwrtheyrn national language centre have created a guide to the Six Nations tournament in Welsh.
LANGUAGE experts at Nant Gwrtheyrn national language centre have created an on-line guide to the Six Nations tournament in Welsh with all sorts of useful advice to tackle the language.
June 14 /PRNewswire/ -- General Dynamics Information Technology, a business unit of General Dynamics (NYSE: GD), has successfully conducted a pilot program of the National Language Service Corps (NLSC).

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