naval conferences

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naval conferences,

series of international assemblies, meeting to consider limitation of naval armaments, settlement of the rules of naval war, and allied issues. The London Naval Conference (1908–9), composed of delegates of 10 powers, resulted in the influential Declaration of London (see London, Declaration ofLondon, Declaration of,
international code of maritime law, especially as related to war, proposed in 1909. The declaration grew largely out of the attempt at the second of the Hague Conferences to set up an international prize court with compulsory jurisdiction.
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). After World War I, U.S. President Harding called the Washington Conference (1921–22). Several treaties resulted. The Five-Power Treaty limited tonnage of aircraft carriers and capital ships and arranged for the United States, Great Britain, and France to scrap a number of ships. Agreement was reached on a ratio of capital ships for Great Britain, the United States, Japan, France, and Italy; the ratio was set at 5:5:3:1.67:1.67. Another five-power treaty made the rules of warfare applying to surface ships applicable also to submarines and outlawed the use of poison gas. In the Four-Power Treaty, France, Japan, Great Britain, and the United States agreed to respect each other's possessions in the Pacific. The status quo of naval fortifications in the W Pacific was to be maintained. Japan was to return Shandong to China, which was guaranteed territorial integrity and greater control over its tariff by two Nine-Power Treaties. The Washington Conference treaties were to remain in force until Dec. 31, 1936. The Geneva Conference (1927) failed to reach agreement on more comprehensive limits for warships. At the London Conference (1930), Japan won a 7:10:10 ratio with the United States and Great Britain in small cruisers and destroyers, remained at a 3:5:5 ratio with them in large cruisers, and won parity in submarines. France and Italy refused to take part in the new ratios, but, with the other three powers, agreed to defer further construction of capital ships. An escalator clause provided for naval expansion in case of any threat to national security by the naval building of a nonsignatory nation. The announcement in 1934 of Japan's intention to withdraw from the Washington Conference treaties resulted in another London Conference (1935). Japan withdrew from the conference when refused naval parity with the United States and Great Britain. These two powers and France signed (Mar. 25, 1936) an agreement to limit cruisers and destroyers to 8,000 tons and capital ships to 35,000 tons. Reports of Japanese building in excess of 35,000 tons led to a revision (1938) of the treaty limits on the size of capital ships, and with the outbreak of World War II in 1939 the treaties were completely abandoned.
References in periodicals archive ?
Reportedly, the photos of the mock-up had first appeared in April during a Chinese naval conference.
At the Crossroads Between Peace and War: The London Naval Conference of 1930
His account of the 1921 Washington Naval Conference is novel, overly emotional, and unsubstantiated by any of the listed sources in the bibliography.
89) and navigating his desk through the treacherous hallways of the naval and civilian bureaucracies ashore, The protege of Prime Ministerial Admirals Saito Makoto and Kato Tomosaburo, Nomura's finest hours came at the Washington naval conference in 1921-22 where he served as senior aide to Kato Tomosaburo, who as Navy Minister was responsible for getting the Japanese government to agree to the Washington system of naval arms limitation which was aimed at bringing peace to the Pacific and stability to East Asia (p.
Great Britain spent years building the most powerful battle fleet in the world prior to 1914, and after the 1924 naval conference in Washington D.
David Roberts, deputy director of Rusi Qatar expressed delight at partnering with Dimdex for the naval conference.
Long ago his teacher at Yale University, the late distinguished historian Samuel Flagg Bemis, introduced him to a fine dissertation topic, "Japan and the United States, 1915-25," centering on the Washington Naval Conference.
At the evening reception of an international naval conference, everyone was happily chatting as they sipped drinks when a French admiral suddenly complained that, whereas Europeans learn many languages, Americans learn only English.
A naval conference on Tyneside had "made a vital contribution to the future of British shipbuilding", the former captain of HMS Ark Royal said yesterday.
5} In March 1921, at the Penang Naval Conference attended by naval commanders from the China, East Indies and Australia Stations, a number of recommendations were made concerning the establishment of additional DF stations.
He had achieved a string of real accomplishments: creating an open, accessible administration, establishing the Bureau of the Budget, negotiating the first international reduction of armaments at the Washington Naval Conference, sponsoring tax cuts that spurred the economic expansion of the 1920s, supporting the end of economic and political (though not social) racial discrimination, and pressuring the steel industry to end the 12-hour day.
Meaney ends his study with the Washington Naval Conference of 1922-1923 which he claims ended the cold war between Australia and Japan by introducing a period of detente between the Pacific powers, detente but not peace.

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