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Near East:see Middle EastMiddle East,
term traditionally applied by western Europeans to the countries of SW Asia and NE Africa lying W of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. Thus defined it includes Cyprus, the Asian part of Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, the West Bank and Gaza, Jordan, Iraq, Iran, the
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the name of the territory in western Asia and northeast Africa containing the Arab Republic of Egypt, Sudan, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Libya, Turkey, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, the Yemen Arab Republic, the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar, the Bahrain Islands in the Persian Gulf, and the Republic of Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea. In foreign literature, mainly western European and American, the countries of the Near East together with Iran and Afghanistan constitute the Middle East. In the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, the term “Near East” referred to the entire territory of the Ottoman Empire, including the countries of the Balkan Peninsula.