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see urinary systemurinary system,
group of organs of the body concerned with excretion of urine, that is, water and the waste products of metabolism. In humans, the kidneys are two small organs situated near the vertebral column at the small of the back, the left lying somewhat higher than the
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the basic structural and functional unit of the kidneys in vertebrate animals and man. A distinction is made between aglomerular and glomerular nephrons. Aglomerular nephrons are found in certain fishes and contain cells of a single type; glomerular nephrons, found in all other vertebrates and in man, contain the Malpighian bodies and Bowman’s capsules. The renal tubules extend from Bowman’s capsules.

The cells of glomerular nephrons are highly specialized to perform the functions required in the formation of urine—filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. In embryos the nephron also includes the nephrostomes, which are the ciliated infundibuli of the tubules. The nephrostomes open into the body cavity.


The functional unit of a kidney, consisting of the glomerulus with its capsule and attached uriniferous tubule.
References in periodicals archive ?
While the human kidney does have some capacity to repair itself after injury, it is not able to regenerate new nephrons.
Serum creatinine does not indicate a significant change in kidney function until approximately 50 percent of nephrons have been compromised, significantly lagging or being insensitive to the actual injury to the kidney.
Mesangial hypercellularity and a collapse of the vascular structure servicing the nephrons are observed.
However, it should be kept in mind that although the glomerular filtration rate returns to normal in most patients, there may be permanent nephron loss which may later result in the development of chronic renal failure.
Samples of proximal tubule fluid were obtained from seven different nephrons for determination of flow rate and polyfructosan concentration to calculate single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR).
Pre-renal causes generally arise due to hypoperfusion of the nephrons due to shock, heart failure, hypotension, dehydration, hypovolvaemia or renal arterial stenosis, which all decrease renal blood flow and may trigger renal failure.
The pelvic kidney is composed of nephrons that function in urine formation, and possibly as secondary sexual characteristics in some salamanders (i.
E-cadherin-null mice show decreased nephrons due to a failure of proper fusion of metanephric mesenchyme to the ureteric bud (Mah et al.
Early intervention is essential to slow deterioration of kidney function, but this can be challenging as the clinical signs of CKD are often not evident until 75-80% of the nephrons are non-functional.
The same proportional relationship--the physiological capacity corresponding to available surface area--can be examined when looking at the absorption of nutrients in the villi of the small intestines, the retention of water by the nephrons, the delivery of oxygen by red blood cells in the circulatory system, the absorption of nutrients in the roots of plants, and the photosynthetic capacity of leaves.
London, Feb 2 (ANI): Scientists have discovered a cell in zebrafish that can be transplanted from one fish to another to regenerate nephrons and improve kidney function.