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Related to Nestorianism: Monophysitism, Arianism, Docetism


Christian heresy that held Jesus to be two distinct persons, closely and inseparably united. In 428, Emperor Theodosius II named an abbot of Antioch, Nestorius (d. 451?), as patriarch of Constantinople. In that year Nestorius, who had been a pupil of Theodore of MopsuestiaTheodore of Mopsuestia
, c.350–428, Syrian Christian theologian, bishop of Mopsuestia (from 392). Together with his lifelong friend, St. John Chrysostom, he studied at the school of Antioch, adopted its exegetical methods, and became a diligent writer and preacher.
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, outraged the Christian world by opposing the use of the title Mother of God for the Virgin on the grounds that, while the Father begot Jesus as God, Mary bore him as a man. This view was contradicted by Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria, and both sides appealed to Pope Celestine I. The Council of Ephesus (see Ephesus, Council ofEphesus, Council of,
431, 3d ecumenical council, convened by Theodosius II, emperor of the East, and Valentinian III, emperor of the West, to deal with the controversy over Nestorianism. Adherents of both parties attended; St.
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) was convened in 431 to settle the matter. This council (reinforced by the Council of Chalcedon in 451) clarified orthodox Catholic doctrine, pronouncing that Jesus, true God and true man, has two distinct natures that are inseparably joined in one person and partake of the one divine substance. Nestorius, deposed after the Council of Ephesus, was sent to Antioch, to Arabia, and finally to Egypt. A work believed to be by Nestorius, Bazaar of Heraclides, discovered c.1895, gives an account of the controversy. The patriarch of Antioch and his bishops, accusing Cyril of unscrupulous action, stayed out of communion with Alexandria until a compromise was reached in 433, but though the subject was discussed in 553 at the Second Council of Constantinople (see Constantinople, Second Council ofConstantinople, Second Council of,
553, regarded generally as the fifth ecumenical council. It was convened by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I to settle the dispute known as the Three Chapters.
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), Nestorianism was practically dead in the empire after 451. Nestorianism survived outside the Roman Empire through missionary expansion into Arabia, China, and India from the 6th cent., but declined after 1300. The doctrines that continued in the Nestorian ChurchNestorian Church,
officially the Assyrian Church of the East, Christian community of Iraq, Iran, and SW India. It represents the ancient church of Persia and is sometimes also called the East Syrian Church. It numbers about 175,000, including emigrants to the United States.
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 had diminishing connections with those of Nestorius. The teachings of EutychesEutyches
, c.378–c.452, archimandrite in Constantinople, sponsor of Eutychianism, the first phase of Monophysitism. He was the leader in Constantinople of the most violent opponents of Nestorianism, among whom was Dioscurus, successor to St. Cyril (d.
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 and MonophysitismMonophysitism
[Gr.,=belief in a single nature], a heresy of the 5th and 6th cent., which grew out of a reaction against Nestorianism. It was anticipated by Apollinarianism and was continuous with the principles of Eutyches, whose doctrine had been rejected in 451 at Chalcedon
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 developed partially in reaction to Nestorianism. J. Pelikan, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (1971); and R. Norris, ed. and tr., The Christological Controversy (1980).



a movement in Christianity that arose in Byzantium in the fifth century; founded by Nestorius, patriarch of Constantinople from 428 to 431 (before that, a priest in Antioch, Syria).

For Nestorianism, which retained elements of classical rationalism, the mystical Christian concept of the “god-man” was the object of criticism. According to Nestorius, the Virgin Mary bore a man who subsequently rose to the level of the son of god (the messiah) after he had overcome human weakness; in Christ the human and the divine elements coexist only in a relative union, never fully merging. In contrast, orthodox doctrine emphasized the full unity of the human and the divine. Nestorius’ social support was mainly from those who still maintained classical traditions. His influence was especially great in Syria. His chief opponent was Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, who was supported by the monks and the rural population of Egypt, Palestine, and Asia Minor. At the Council of Ephesus in 431, Nestorianism was condemned as a heresy, and Nestorius was exiled. Most of the Nestorians fled to Iran (where they formed the Nestorian Church, which flourished until the mid-seventh century), to Middle Asia, and later to China.

Today there are Nestorians in Iran, Iraq, Syria, and India (along the Malabar Coast). In the early 20th century, when works by Nestorius previously known only through his opponents’ expositions were published, a tendency appeared in Western theology to prove that the doctrine of Nestorianism is not divergent from orthodoxy.


References in periodicals archive ?
It was in this way that foreign religions, such as Nestorianism, Judaism, and Islam, were able to flourish.
Evidently, the Grammarian is anxious to meet two essential requirements of Christology: first, to account for the full reality of the two natures in Christ; and second, to dismiss Severus' charge of Nestorianism.
Its remarkable growth and tenacity occurred after 451, the year Nestorianism was outlawed as heresy in the Roman Empire.
A century later, Arianism, exacerbated by Nestorianism, mutated into Monophysitism, the doctrine that the Incarnate Christ had but a single nature, the divine, as opposed to the orthodox teaching of a divine-human duality.
Though he was known to have written many books, all but this commentary were destroyed after he was condemned by the Lateran council of 649 as the father of Nestorianism.
This became a favourable condition for their adherence to Nestorianism in 484 and 486 condemned as a heresy by the council of Ephesus.
Uray on the influence of Nestorianism and Manicheanism on Tibet in the eighth through tenth centuries.
At the same time, Islam is not one of the Christian confessions (like Monothelitism, Nestorianism, or even Arianism) but properly speaking it is another religion.
Vladimir Lossky called this division an "ecclesiological Nestorianism," (3) discerning two separate realities (heavenly and earthly, invisible and visible), where in fact there is but one.
It was a turbulent era when a readiness to excommunicate produced one crisis after another, leading to schisms such as Nestorianism (A.
On the other hand, Calvinists were accused of Nestorianism, in which the two natures were considered so distinct that Jesus could be interpreted as consisting of two persons, a teaching contrary to the orthodox christological and trinitarian doctrine.
The disputes between the so-called Alexandrian and Antiochian schools, expanded into Monophysitism and Nestorianism (first half of the fifth century), revolve around the question of the divine Logos becoming human: did he merely take on humanity in a general sense (Alexandria), or was he indeed very specifically human (Antioch)?