Until 2007, resistance against neuraminidase inhibitors
was rarely observed (1,3,4).
When taken within 48 hours after onset of symptoms and continued for 5 days, neuraminidase inhibitors
(zanamivir and oseltamivir) (19) reduce the duration and seriousness of influenza by 1 to 2 days for adults (20-24), children (22,25,26), and persons at high risk (22,27-29).
Very low pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 mortality associated with early neuraminidase inhibitor
treatment in Japan: analysis of 1000 hospitalized children.
Oseltamivir, the neuraminidase inhibitor
, and amantadine, an M2 ion channel inhibitor, face 90% and 100% resistance respectively, in some areas.
Impact of neuraminidase inhibitor
treatment on outcomes of public health importance during the 2009-2010 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis in hospitalized patients.
The meta-analysis also included five observational studies and two surveys that compared the second marketed neuraminidase inhibitor
, inhaled zanamivir, with no antiviral therapy in patients treated as outpatients.
Laninamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor
administered only by inhalation.
Among specific topics are pathogenesis of avian influenza (H5N1) infection in humans, the activity of neuraminidase inhibitor
oseltamivir against all subtypes of influenza viruses, alternative strategies for developing vaccines against pandemic influenza, micronutrients in the global fight against influenza, the impact of an emerging avian influenza virus (H5N1) in a seabird colony, and controlling influenza at healthcare facilities in resource-limited settings.
Oseltamivir phosphate, marketed as Tamiflu, is a popular neuraminidase inhibitor
widely used to treat flu symptoms.
Surveillance for neuraminidase inhibitor
resistance among human influenza A and B viruses circulating worldwide in 2004-2008.
A global surveillance network called the Neuraminidase Inhibitor
Susceptibility Network (NISN) has been set up with the World Health Organisation (WHO) to monitor the possible emergence of viral resistance to these drugs.
Efficacy and safety of the oral neuraminidase inhibitor
oseltamivir in treating acute influenza.