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a neuroallergic disease of the skin; the earliest, primary symptom is itching; later, clinically observable eruptions appear on the surface of the skin. The disease exists in two forms: localized neurodermatitis and disseminated neurodermatitis (also called atopic eczema).
Localized neurodermatitis is usually manifested on the face, the posterolateral surfaces of the neck, the elbow flexures, the popliteal fossae (the depressions on the posterior surfaces of the knees), the inner surfaces of the thighs, and the genitals and in the anal region. The mild, inflammatory foci are oval shaped and have indistinct boundaries. The skin within a focus is thickened, the normal folds and creases are exaggerated, branny scales and nodular rashes develop, and scratch marks and blood crusts appear. In patients with disseminated neurodermatitis, the process is more widely distributed, and the reddish cyanotic thickened foci are surrounded by nodules. Wet scales and crusts are symptoms of the exudative form of neurodermatitis. Areas of brown pigmentation persist for a long time at sites of previous rashes.
The medicinal treatment of neurodermatitis employs antipruritics, the B vitamins, and ointments containing steroid hormones. These medications are used in combination with a controlled diet and treatment at health resorts, which prevent aggravation of the condition.
REFERENCESSkripkin, Iu. K. Neirodermit. Moscow, 1967.
Pavlov, S. T. Kozhnye i venericheskie bolezni. 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1969.
Shakhtmeister, I. Ia. Patogenez i lechenie ekzemy i neirodermita. Moscow, 1970.
I. IA. SHAKHTMEISTER