Neurohormone


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

neurohormone

[¦nu̇r·ō′hȯr‚mōn]
(neuroscience)
A hormone produced by nervous tissue.

Neurohormone

 

a physiologically active substance that is produced by special neurons—the neurosecretory cells.

Like a mediator substance (chemical transmitter), a neurohormone is released by nerve endings, but in contrast to the first, a neurohormone is secreted into the blood or tissue fluid. Such secretion into the body fluids is characteristic of hormones. Neurohormones, for example, vasopressin, oxytocin, and the adenohypophysiotropic hormones, have been discovered in many vertebrates and in many invertebrates, including mollusks, worms, and arthropods. Chemically, the majority of neurohormones are peptides; some are catecholamines. Biosynthesis of peptide neurohormones occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell body of the neuron, The peptides are packaged in the Golgi complex and are subsequently transported along the axon to the nerve endings. In the mammalian brain the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus are a source of neurohormones. Neurohormones regulate the activity of the cells of some endocrine glands and influence the cells of other organs.

REFERENCE

See references under .
References in periodicals archive ?
sup][28] In the other hand, the MI can act as a stressor to cause the depressive symptoms through certain neurohormones.
Exercise-related changes in these neurohormones were also related to cardiorespiratory fitness.
Alternatively, the level of pain may be increasing faster than the anti-stress response can mediate, causing a temporary imbalance--this would result in high levels of the neurohormone CRH resulting in feelings of fear and overwhelming pain.
The significance of the metabolism of the neurohormone melatonin: antioxidative protection and formation of bioactive substances.
Effect of long-term enalapril therapy on neurohormones in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.
Brain natriuretic peptide is a neurohormone synthesized in ventricular myocardium and released in response to cardiac stretch.
McInnes and colleagues at the University of Glasgow (Scotland) have shown, for the first time, that anti-TNF-alpha therapy lowers circulating levels of the cardiac neurohormone N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who do not have evident heart failure.
The notion of GABA as a crustacean neurohormone is not a new one: Kravitz et al.
Mclnnes and colleagues at the University of Glasgow (Scotland) have shown, for the first time, that anti-TNF-alpha therapy decreases circulating levels of the cardiac neurohormone N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who do not have evident heart failure.
Stress in employed women: impact of marital status and children at home on neurohormone output and home strain.
When the chemical messenger is released into the extracellular space and enters a nearby capillary, the chemical is called a neurohormone.