New Realism

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New Realism


a trend in contemporary bourgeois philosophy. New realism was influenced by the Scottish school as well as by F. Brentano, A. Meinong, E. Mach (Austria), and the early B. Russell.

The epistemological tenets of new realism were set forth by G. E. Moore in his article “The Refutation of Idealism” (1903) and were subsequently formulated into a specific doctrine in the United States by R. Perry, E. B. Holt, W. Montague, W. Marvin, E. Spaulding, and W. Pitkin, who in 1910 issued “The Program and First Platform of Six Realists.”

The cosmology of new realism was developed by S. Alexander, A. Whitehead, J. Smuts, and L. Morgan. It represented a variant of the metaphysical concept of development—the theory of emergent evolution. In the 1930’s, new realism declined in influence and was replaced by critical realism.

New realism criticized subjective idealism for reducing reality to the consciousness of the subject and rejected absolute idealism (F. Bradley), which identified reality with universal consciousness. New realism asserted the existence of object independent of subject. At the same time, it rejected materialism as a “dualistic” theory that supposedly regarded subject and object as absolute opposites. New realism developed the doctrine of epistemological monism.

New realism holds that the nature of being is neither material nor ideal. It is an aggregate of neutral elements that, depending on the situation, acquire either physical or mental significance. In cognition, the neutral object directly enters the consciousness of the subject, thereby becoming “mental.” However, when the object is not included in an epistemological situation, it appears as “physical.” However, the thesis of the direct inclusion of an object by consciousness does not make it possible to resolve the problem of the origin of false consciousness and contradicts the basic premise of new realism—the existence of reality independent of consciousness. Thus, new realism is essentially a variety of idealism.


Bogomolov, A. S. Filosofiia anglo-amerikanskogo neorealizma. Moscow, 1962.
Lukanov, D. M. Gnoseologiia amerikanskogo “realizma.” Moscow, 1968.
Sovremennaia burzhuaznaia filosofiia. Moscow, 1972. Chapter 8.
The New Realism. New York, 1925.
Kremer, R. Le Néo-réalisme américain. Paris, 1920.
Evans, D. L. New Realism and Old Reality. Princeton, 1928.
Ray, B. Consciousness in Neo-realism. Oxford, 1935.
Boman, L. Criticism and Construction in the Philosophy of American New Realism. Stockholm, 1955. D. M. LUKANOV
References in periodicals archive ?
A manifestation of the new realism is discernable on the Ladakh and Arunachal borders where Delhi has begun to address "infrastructure deficiencies" even as it is pursuing a policy of working with China in areas of interest to its economy.
In "The New Realism," for instance, Arthur commented on the "youthful revolution" that seemed likely to change "the British novel, clearing away a vast burden of traditional cant, and establishing a fresh and decent relation between the essential facts of life and their artistic revelation" (204-05).
Arman, Yves Klein (1928-1962), and several others became the founders of the movement known as the New Realism (6, 7).
Huge challenges still face Newcastle, but the increasing success of public/private partnerships, and efforts to attract and unlock external funding for growth and redevelopment offer hope and a new realism for the challenge of maintaining and achieving the city's economic aspirations into the future.
Point of consumption is seen instead as generally acceptable throughout Europe and is, after all, similar to what standard VAT represents, especially as the straitened economic climate has prompted a harsh new realism.
But it's the new realism though, of the modern Premier League, that even clubs like Liverpool and Arsenal are vulnerable to the likes of the new-monied aristocracy led by Manchester City and Chelsea.
Perhaps we are seeing a new realism enter our daily lives when people can take responsibility for their own lives instead of expecting all their problems to be solved by unrealistic injections of socialist funding.
The duo became involved with the Cinema Novo movement, Brazil's version of New Realism, working with Glauber Rocha, Nelson Pereira dos Santos, Carlos Diegues, Paulo Cezar Saraceni and Joaquim Pedro de Andrade.
In chapter 6, McDermott traces the history of the Tantric goddess Kali in texts from the twelfth to the eighteenth centuries, the impact of the new realism on her iconography from the 1830s, a decade later than on Durga's, and, of late, the influence of female imagery in Hindi film.
Mr Davies' new realism was rather less in evidence, though, in his remarks on the future of the Euro, whose collapse he evidently sees as inevitable.
Oeler's argument is structured on multiple levels, relying on and engaging with both historical and critical discourses and providing numerous close analyses, thereby creating a sort of structural montage within the text itself, further reflecting her point that "Montage can function like cubism to achieve a new realism through emphasizing the partiality of any one view" (13).
We can expect 'more' positive signals from this year, with some of the key words being affordable housing, budget hotels, infrastructure spending, estate management, selective stability, financial viability, new realism, tenant friendliness and sustainability across the UAE real estate market.

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