infant mortality

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infant mortality

(hardware)
It is common lore among hackers (and in the electronics industry at large) that the chances of sudden hardware failure drop off exponentially with a machine's time since first use (that is, until the relatively distant time at which enough mechanical wear in I/O devices and thermal-cycling stress in components has accumulated for the machine to start going senile). Up to half of all chip and wire failures happen within a new system's first few weeks; such failures are often referred to as "infant mortality" problems (or, occasionally, as "sudden infant death syndrome").

See bathtub curve, burn-in period.

Infant Mortality

 

the rate of death of live-borns during the first year of life. Infant mortality, with the birthrate and mortality, is a statistical index of natural population dynamics; it is expressed by the number of deceased infants per 100 or per 1,000 live-births. In the USSR a live-born is defined as an infant who has taken at least one breath. Infant mortality is basically a function of socioeconomic causes and shifts in one direction or another when these change. Thanks to measures of the system of maternity and childhood protection and to the system of antenatal protection of the fetus created by Soviet physicians, infant mortality in the USSR has sharply decreased (see Table 1).

According to UN data, infant mortality in the socialist countries in 1969 (per 1,000 births) was as follows: Bulgaria,

Table 1. Infant mortality in Russia and the USSR
 19131940195019601970
Deceased infants per 1,000 births269182813525

30.5; Hungary, 33.6; German Democratic Republic, 20.4; Poland, 34.3; Rumania, 54.9; and Czechoslovakia, 22.9. In contrast to the USSR, in certain capitalist countries infants who die before their births are recorded are considered to be stillborn; therefore, the indexes of infant morality in those countries do not correspond to reality and give lower figures.

References in periodicals archive ?
According to the new figures, newborn deaths, that is deaths in the first four weeks of life (neonatal period), today account for 41 per cent of all child deaths before the age of five.
Hassan Murad Shah said that training midwives and other birth attendants to help babies start breathing immediately after birth if they need help, may prevent stillbirths and newborn deaths in the developing world.
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Premature birth is the leading cause of newborn death and a major cause of lifelong disability.
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Prematurity is a leading cause of newborn death and is also a major cause of illness and disability among infants.
The leading cause of newborn death and many lifelong disabilities, prematurity is estimated to cost the nation's healthcare system $16 billion a year.
It affects one in eight babies, both in Colorado and nationwide, is the leading cause of newborn death and many lifelong disabilities.
Prematurity has become the number one cause of newborn death in the United States.