Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm

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Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm

(frē`drĭkh vĭl`hĕlm nē`chə), 1844–1900, German philosopher, b. Röcken, Prussia. The son of a clergyman, Nietzsche studied Greek and Latin at Bonn and Leipzig and was appointed to the chair of classical philology at Basel in 1869. In his early years he was friendly with the composer Richard Wagner, although later he was to turn against him. Nervous disturbances and eye trouble forced Nietzsche to leave Basel in 1879; he moved from place to place in a vain effort to improve his health until 1889, when he became hopelessly insane. Nietzsche was not a systematic philosopher but rather a moralist who passionately rejected Western bourgeois civilization. He regarded Christian civilization as decadent, and in place of its "slave morality" he looked to the superman, the creator of a new heroic morality that would consciously affirm life and the life values. That superman would represent the highest passion and creativity and would live at a level of experience beyond the conventional standards of good and evil. His creative "will to power" would set him off from "the herd" of inferior humanity. Nietzsche's thought had widespread influence but was of particular importance in Germany. Apologists for Nazism seized on much of his writing as a philosophical justification for their doctrines, but most scholars regard this as a perversion of Nietzsche's thought. Among his most famous works are The Birth of Tragedy (1872, tr. 1910); Thus Spake Zarathustra (1883–91, tr. 1909, 1930), and Beyond Good and Evil (1886, tr. 1907).

Bibliography

See his selected letters ed. by C. Middleton (1969); biographies by C. K. Brinton (1941, repr. 1965), H. A. Reyburn (1948, repr. 1973), I. Frenzel (1967), R. Hayman (1980, repr. 1999), L. Chamberlain (1996), C. Cate (2005), and J. Young (2010); studies by H. L. Mencken (1913, repr. 1993), R. Pfefler (1972), R. C. Solomon, ed. (1973), W. A. Kaufmann (4th ed. 1974), J. T. Wilcox (1974), J. P. A. Stern (1979), R. Schacht (1983), G. Clive (1984), R. J. Hollingdale (1985), A. Nehamas (1985), J. Köhler (tr. 1998), R. C. Solomon and K. M. Higgins (2000), R. B. Pippin (2010), K. Michalski (tr. 2011), and J. Ratner-Rosenhagen (2011).

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The man with overflowing strength, both of mind and body, who must discharge this strength or perish, is the Nietzschean ideal.
He could never cross it and explain to them his position, - the Nietzschean position, in regard to socialism.
As he watched her go, the Nietzschean edifice seemed to shake and totter.
Rejected by the middle class, which he loathed, he had shot up at once into the highest circles by his wit, his dustmanship (which he carried like a banner), and his Nietzschean transcendence of good and evil.
Against the concern of Nietzscheans who would have us abandon the emotional language of evil altogether, Barry sticks to the language of evil, and even argues in a later chapter on capital punishment that if putting people to death is ever "morally permissible" it is when they are evil.
It is therefore not enough to merely observe that Foucault and Deleuze are both Nietzscheans, as most commentators do; they are Nietzscheans in consistently divergent yet complimentary ways within the Nietzschean philosophy itself, which presupposes both the genealogical critique of history and the project of the eternal return that exceeds history and promotes the affirmation of active forces.
She did not, like some left-wing Nietzscheans, depict Nietzsche's view of democracy as wrong-headed or superficial.
A more productive way to deal with the issue of Nietzschean influence is to reframe it as a matter of the self-avowed Nietzscheans creating a Nietzsche in their own image.
A black hole and a conspiracy plot from the subspecies Nietzscheans sends Hunt 300 years into the future, where he then has to save his ship from an oddball team of space travelers.
Equally, however, these essays constitute a response to another recent publication, Luc Ferry and Alain Renaut's Why We Are Not Nietzscheans (1991; 1997).
s picture of Nietzsche is probably far too Christian (in sympathy if not in fact) for many Nietzscheans, while the understanding of religion underlying his discussion is quite distant from that of most religious persons.
This unwillingness to confront explicit criticisms of the objectivist position may also shed light on Shively's decision to ignore Nietzsche and the contemporary Nietzscheans who, whatever the weaknesses of their own position, have developed powerful and withering critiques that must be convincingly answered if moral realism is to be defended.