Zagarell, "Crosscurrents: Registers of Nordicism
, Community, and Culture in Jewett's Country of the Pointed Firs," The Yale Journal of Criticism 10 (1997), 357.
What is less obvious is that despite this stereotyping - and it was not restricted to African Americans and Jews - Fitzgerald felt differently about two vicious forms of racism that existed during his lifetime, Nordicism and lynching.
In contrast, he soon was to indicate his opposition to Nordicism, a contemporaneous theory of racial superiority.
When Tom Buchanan talks about "The Rise of the Coloured Empires' by this man Goddard," he is referring to Nordicism.
One was Madison Grant, author of The Passing of the Great Race (1916), another work advocating Nordicism, whose introduction in The Rising Tide of Color supported Stoddard.
Nordicism was related in a number of ways but not wholly to the theory of eugenics, which had transformed Darwin's theory of the survival of the fittest into the idea that various traits are inherited, that the human race can be improved by controlled selective breeding, and the corollary idea that the breeding of those least fit should be discouraged.
But one aspect of Wolfshiem's function in Gatsby is to expose the hypocrisy of Nordicism, a theory that Fitzgerald despised: Buchanan, the Nordic, the man of privilege who comes from an old respected American family, is no less evil than Wolfshiem, the Jew, one of those that Goddard and Stoddard and their ilk wanted to keep out of this country.
But just as he had had strong feelings about Nordicism very early, he had strong feelings very early too about the many lynchings in this country of African Americans.