Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray, 1st duke of

Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray, 1st duke of,

c.1366–1399, English nobleman. He was created earl of Nottingham in 1383, and in 1385 he was made earl marshal of England for life. He joined Thomas of Woodstock, duke of GloucesterGloucester, Thomas of Woodstock, duke of,
1355–97, English nobleman; youngest son of Edward III. He was betrothed (1374) to Eleanor, heiress of Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, and became earl of Buckingham at the coronation of Richard II (1377).
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, and the other baronial opponents of Richard IIRichard II,
1367–1400, king of England (1377–99), son of Edward the Black Prince. Early Life

After his father's death (1376) he was created prince of Wales and succeeded his grandfather, Edward III, to the throne.
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 in 1387 and was one of the five lords appellant who "appealed" (i.e., accused) the king's favorites of treason and secured their conviction in the Merciless Parliament of 1388. After Richard regained control in 1389, however, he was conciliatory to Nottingham, who accompanied him to Ireland in 1394. In 1397, Nottingham aided the king in bringing to trial his former associates, Gloucester and the earls of Arundel and Warwick. Gloucester was placed in his custody, and he was possibly responsible for his murder. Although created duke of Norfolk in 1397, he began to fear that the king might turn on him and confided in the other remaining lord appellant, the duke of Hereford (later Henry IVHenry IV,
1367–1413, king of England (1399–1413), eldest son of John of Gaunt and grandson of Edward III; called Henry of Bolingbroke. He founded the Lancastrian dynasty.
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). A dispute arose between Norfolk and Hereford when Hereford told the king of Norfolk's suspicions, and trial by combat was proposed. At the last moment, however, Richard intervened and banished both from the country, Norfolk for life. He died in Italy. A version of the story is told in Shakespeare's Richard II.