North Atlantic Treaty Organization


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North Atlantic Treaty Organization

(NATO), established under the North Atlantic Treaty (Apr. 4, 1949) by Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United States. Greece and Turkey entered the alliance in 1952, West Germany (now Germany) entered in 1955, and Spain joined in 1982. In 1999 the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland joined. Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia joined five years later, and Albania and Croatia joined in 2009, bringing the membership to 28. NATO maintains headquarters in Brussels, Belgium.

The treaty, one of the major Western countermeasures against the threat of aggression by the Soviet Union during the cold warcold war,
term used to describe the shifting struggle for power and prestige between the Western powers and the Communist bloc from the end of World War II until 1989. Of worldwide proportions, the conflict was tacit in the ideological differences between communism and
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, was aimed at safeguarding the freedom of the North Atlantic community. Considering an armed attack on any member an attack against all, the treaty provided for collective self-defense in accordance with Article 51 of the United Nations Charter. The treaty was also designed to encourage political, economic, and social cooperation. The organization was reorganized and centralized in 1952, and has undergone subsequent reorganizations.

NATO's highest organ, the North Atlantic Council, may meet on several levels—heads of government, ministers, or permanent representatives. The council determines policy and supervises the civilian and military agencies; NATO's secretary-general chairs the council. Under the council is the Military Committee, which may meet at the chiefs of staff or permanent representative level. Its headquarters in Washington, D.C., has representatives of the chiefs of staff of all member countries. France withdrew from the Military Committee from 1966 to 1995 while remaining a member of the council, and did not return to NATO's military command until 2009.

NATO is now divided into two commands. Allied Command Operations is headed by the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR). SACEUR directs NATO forces and, in time of war, controls all land, sea, and air operations. Allied Command Transformation, with headquarters at Norfolk, Va., is responsible for making recommendations on the strategic transformation of NATO forces in the post-cold-war era.

In the 1990s, with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Treaty OrganizationWarsaw Treaty Organization
or Warsaw Pact,
alliance set up under a mutual defense treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland, in 1955 by Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.
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, NATO's role in world affairs changed, and U.S. forces in Europe were gradually reduced. Many East European nations sought NATO membership as a counterbalance to Russian power, but they, along with other European and Asian nations (including Russia), initially were offered only membership in the more limited Partnership for Peace, formed in 1994, which subsequently evolved into the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. More than 20 countries now belong to the partnership, which engages in joint military exercises with NATO. In 2002, NATO and Russia established the NATO-Russia Council, through which Russia participates in NATO discussions on many nondefense issues, but following Russia's occupation and annexation of Crimea in 2014, NATO suspended most of its cooperation with Russia. Russia's annexation of Crimea and subsequent support for rebels in E Ukraine refocused NATO on its original purpose, the collective self-defense of its members. In the mid-2010s small groups of NATO troops were rotated through E European NATO members; some 3,500 troops were deployed in Poland in 2017. Other NATO partners include those in the Mediterranean Dialogue and the İstanbul Cooperation Initiative and a number of other individual national partners. NATO is not required to defend partnership nations from attack.

NATO has increasingly concentrated on extending security and stability throughout Europe, and on peacekeeping efforts in Europe and elsewhere. NATO air forces were used under UN auspices in punitive attacks on Serb forces in Bosnia in 1994 and 1995, and the alliance's forces were subsequently used for peacekeeping operations in Bosnia. NATO again launched air attacks in Mar.–June, 1999, this time on the former Yugoslavia following following the breakdown of negotiations over KosovoKosovo
, Albanian Kosova, Serbian Kosovo i Metohija and Kosmet, officially Republic of Kosovo, republic (2011 est. pop. 1,826,000), 4,126 sq mi (10,686 sq km), SE Europe, a former province of Serbia that unilaterally declared its independence in 2008.
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. In June, 1999, NATO was authorized by the United Nations to begin trying to restore order in the province, and NATO peacekeeping forces entered Kosovo. In Aug., 2003, NATO assumed command of the international security force in the Kabul area in Afghanistan, which by 2010 had expanded to include some 120,000 troops (including more than 78,000 Americans) deployed throughout Afghanistan; NATO's combat mission there ended in Dec., 2014. A NATO rapid-response force was established in Oct., 2003. NATO forces also were largely responsible for enforcing the UN-authorized seven-month no-fly zone over Libya during the Arab Spring revolution there in 2011.

The membership of many NATO nations in the increasingly integrated European UnionEuropean Union
(EU), name given since the ratification (Nov., 1993) of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, to the European Community (EC), an economic and political confederation of European nations, and other organizations (with the same member nations)
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 (EU) has led to tensions within NATO between the United States and those EU nations, particularly France and Germany, who want to develop an EU defense force, which necessarily would not include non-EU members of NATO. In 2008 disagreements between Greece and Macedonia over the latter's name led Greece to veto an invitation to Macedonia to join. The same year, Georgia and Ukraine were promised eventual membership but not given any timetable; Russia had objected strongly to their becoming NATO members.

Bibliography

See P. H. Spaak, Why NATO? (1959); R. Osgood, The Entangling Alliance (1964); A. Beaufre, NATO and Europe (1966); J. Huntley, The NATO Story (1969); J. A. Huston, One for All: NATO Strategy and Logistics through the Formative Period, 1949–1969 (1984); L. P. Brady and J. P. Kaufman, ed., NATO in the 1980s (1985); W. H. Park, Defending the West (1986); J. R. Golden et al., ed., NATO at Forty (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
One international student per course or about six students per year attend the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Staff Officer Orientation course (NSOOC).
Against a backdrop of war an ocean away, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization commemorated its 50th anniversary Friday with a somber gathering of 19 heads of state who pledged unity in the battle over Kosovo, a fight posing a ``fundamental challenge'' to the alliance's values.
The following are excerpts of the speech given before the Conference on "Transatlantic Defense Industrial Cooperation: Challenges and Prospects" co-sponsored by North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Transatlantic Center of the German Marshall Fund of the United States Brussels, Belgium, July 18, 2003.
Japan announced a 15 million dollar aid to Kosovar refugees On April 1 after the North Atlantic Treaty Organization launched air strikes March 24 to stop Serb forces from attacking ethnic Albanians in Kosovo.
Japanese Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi on Friday said it is regrettable a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) aircraft mistakenly dropped a bomb Wednesday on a civilian vehicle in a convoy in the Serbian province of Kosovo.
Does the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, created as a barrier to Soviet aggression in Western Europe during the Cold War, still have a viable mission?
Hosted by the United States European Command (USEUCOM), this exercise includes participants from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, as well as several constituent nations from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
to promote working relationships with other nations, and assists many countries in receiving invitations to join North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Grigory Karasin, who will take part in the talks, hinted Wednesday that the air attacks on Yugoslavia by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization have made Russia feel more concerned about the TMD project, the agency said.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization authorized airstrikes against Yugoslavia on Tuesday as President Clinton declared that force was necessary to halt the aggression of the Serbs against ethnic Albanians in the province of Kosovo.
The upgrading stemmed from the renewed possibility of military intervention by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) over the Serbs' refusal to sign a proposed peace accord with ethnic Albanians in Kosovo.
The MNE4 participants - Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the United States - will be looking at diplomatic information, military information and the economic aspects of 'knowledge support,' with the U.

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