Nubia


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Nubia

(no͞o`bēə), ancient state of NE Africa. At the height of its political power Nubia extended, from north to south, from the First Cataract of the Nile (near Aswan, Egypt) to Khartoum, in Sudan. It early came under the influence of the pharaohs, and in the 20th cent. B.C. Seti ISeti I
, d. 1290 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, of the XIX dynasty; son and successor of Ramses I. He succeeded to the throne c.1302 B.C. Invading Palestine and Syria, Seti I reduced them again to tributary status, and defeated the Libyans.
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 completed the occupation of the area. Many centuries later Egypt itself was ruled (8th and 7th cent. B.C.) by conquering Nubians of the CushCush
or Kush
. 1 Son of Ham and father of the Asian nation of the same name, perhaps the same nation as one of similar name in E Mesopotamia. Gen. 10.8; 1 Chron. 1.10. 2 Benjamite opposed to David. Ps. 7, title.
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 (Kush) kingdom. Later, after the Assyrians expelled (c.667 B.C.) TaharkaTaharka
or Tirhakah
, d. 663 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, last ruler of the XXV dynasty; son of Piankhi. Before he was king, he led the Egyptians against Sennacherib, who disastrously defeated him. Seizing (688 B.C.
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 from Egypt, the Cushite capital was moved (c.530) from NapataNapata
, ancient city of Nubia, just below the Fourth Cataract of the Nile. From about the 8th cent. B.C., Napata was the capital of the kingdom of Cush. Many great temples like those of Thebes were built here by Taharka (XXV dynasty). The Cushite capital was later moved (c.
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 to MeroëMeroë
, ancient city in N Sudan, on the east bank of the Nile, N of Khartoum. In the mid-6th cent. B.C., Meroë replaced Napata as the central city of the Cushite dynasty (see Cush) and from 530 B.C. until A.D. 350 served as the capital of the dynasty. By the 1st cent.
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. Meroë fell (c.350) to the Ethiopians and was abandoned. The region then came under the sway of the Nobatae, an ethnic group that mixed with the indigenous stock and formed a powerful kingdom with its capital at Dongola. The kingdom was converted to Christianity in the 6th cent. A.D. Joined with the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia, it long resisted Muslim encroachment, but in the 14th cent. it finally collapsed. Nubia was then broken up into many petty states. Muhammad Ali of Egypt conquered (1820–22) Nubia, and in the late 19th cent. much of the area was held by supporters of the MahdiMahdi
[Arab.,=he who is divinely guided], in Sunni Islam, the restorer of the faith. He will appear at the end of time to restore justice on earth and establish universal Islam. The Mahdi will be preceded by al-Dajjal, a Muslim antichrist, who will be slain by Jesus.
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.

Bibliography

See A. J. Arkell, A History of the Sudan to A.D. 1821 (1955).

Nubia

an ancient region of NE Africa, on the Nile, extending from Aswan to Khartoum
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