Nuclear-Free Zone

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Nuclear-Free Zone

 

in international law a demilitarized zone from which the most dangerous types of weapons—atomic and thermonuclear—are excluded. One of the methods of maintaining international peace and security in accordance with the principles and stipulations of the United Nations Charter.

Proposals for the establishment of nuclear-free zones in various parts of the world make it possible to limit to a certain extent the distribution and use of nuclear weapons. The idea of a nuclear-free zone was first applied in practice in the international Antarctic Treaty of 1959, in article 5 of which it is stated that all nuclear explosions and burial of radioactive matter shall be prohibited in the Antarctic.

On Feb. 14, 1958, the minister of foreign affairs of the Polish People’s Republic, A. Rapacki, proposed an extensive program for the creation of a zone in Europe, which would include the Polish People’s Republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, and the Federal Republic of Germany, which would be free of atomic weapons, and in which conventional weapons would be limited. This so-called Rapacki plan was approved by many countries. In December 1963 the Polish People’s Republic introduced a proposal for the “freezing” (that is, the maintenance of the status quo) of nuclear weapons in central Europe, which became known as the Gomulka plan. In May 1968 the government of the USSR proposed that the whole Mediterranean region should be proclaimed a nuclear-free zone and declared its willingness not to deploy any nuclear weapons or their means of delivery in Mediterranean waters provided that the same obligations were assumed by other states. This proposal of the USSR was favorably received by the Mediterranean countries. In September 1957 the Rumanian People’s Republic proposed that a conference of the heads of government of the Balkan states should be convened to consider the question of strengthening peace in the Balkans, and on June 25, 1959, the government of the USSR proposed the creation of a nuclear-free zone in the Balkans and the Adriatic region.

In November 1961 the United Nations General Assembly at its 16th session adopted a special resolution declaring Africa to be a nuclear-free zone, and in 1964 at its 19th session it adopted a resolution declaring Latin America to be a nuclear-free zone.

A. I. IOIRYSH

References in periodicals archive ?
Back in the 1980s many of our towns were declared by the local council to be Nuclear Free Zones.
Third, the US, UK and France have all said that they will accept the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty when France completes the current round of tests in early 1996.
Deputy Secretary Atwood is familiar with the problem, based on experience he had in opposing a nuclear free zone initiative in Massachusetts while he was with General Motors.
Replying to yet another question, he said that Pakistan had expressed its concern over recent North Korea nuclear tests; citing that despite the fact that Pakistan wanted a stable and nuclear free zone in its regain, it would rather prefer its own National interests above CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty).
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On Tuesday, some 110 academics and antinuclear advocates will discuss the possibility of establishing a nuclear free zone in Northeast Asia and ways to stop relying on nuclear power generation.
The US rejected the idea of a Nuclear Free Zone in the Middle East to protect Israel and to insure they are the only nuclear power in the Middle East.
The committee also tackled the possibility the 2012 Finland conference might fail in establishing a nuclear free zone, considering the recommendations of the senior officials committee formed upon a resolution of the Arab League.
After all, we went unilateral to declare ourselves a Nuclear Free Zone, a stance that always gave me an immense sense of well-being and left me feeling extremely sorry for the poor souls who lived in nearby boroughs who would have been targets in the event of a Soviet H-bomb attack.
It was the last of the old county councils to make such an announcement, allowing supporters to declare Wales a nuclear free zone.
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He said Mongolia is in agreement with Iran's initiative for a nuclear free zone, and recognizes all countries' rights to use peaceful nuclear technology.

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