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(no͞or`hächē), 1559–1626, Manchu national founder. He consolidated the ManchuManchu
, people who lived in Manchuria for many centuries and who ruled China from 1644 until 1912. These people, related to the Tungus, were descended from the Jurchen, a tribe known in Asia since the 7th cent. They were first called Manchu in the early 17th cent.
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 tribes under his control and founded the administration that later ruled China as the Ch'ingCh'ing
or Manchu
, the last of the Imperial dynasties of China. Background

The Ch'ing dynasty was established by the Manchus, who invaded China and captured Beijing in 1644, and lasted until 1911.
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 dynasty (1644–1912). His greatest achievement was the creation of the banner systembanner system,
Manchu conscription system. Companies of Manchu warriors were grouped (1601) into brigades, each with a distinctive banner. The banner system integrated former tribal units into a bureaucratic war machine that enabled the Manchus to conquer and rule China as the
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 of military organization that welded the Manchu nation and its early Mongol and Chinese adherents into an efficient war machine. In 1618 he attacked the MingMing
, dynasty of China that ruled from 1368 to 1644. The first Ming emperor, Chu Yüan-chang (ruled 1368–98), a former Buddhist monk, joined a rebellion in progress, gained control of it, overthrew the Mongol Yüan dynasty, and unified all of China proper.
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 forces and took part of Liaodong. Further victories followed, and in 1625 he moved the Manchu capital to Shenyang (Mukden). During this later period, Nurhaci developed a civil administration with the help of captured Chinese officials.
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References in periodicals archive ?
It is set at the time of the fall of the Ming dynasty in 1644 and centers on the adventures of (Yuan Chengzhi), the fictional son of (Yuan Chonghuan 1584-1630), the famous Ming general who defeated Nurhaci and was later wronged and executed by the Emperor Chongzhen ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1611-1644).
Prior to that chapter, Danzhong lu describes the rise of Nurhaci (1559-1626), the frequent personnel changes of Liaodong chief commanders, and the consecutive defeats of Ming troops on the northeast border.
Mao's tangbao from the ninth month of 1626 reports that knowing Nurhaci has a wound in his back, Mao sends his troops to frequently harass Nurhaci's camp.
Some justified rebuffing early overtures from the Jurchen leader Nurhaci by "the excuse of the Ming prohibition on direct relations between tributary countries" (Kye 2006b, 160-161, 163).
The 1619 war was initiated by Ming China (1368-1644) against the Latter Jin (1616-36), the predecessor of the Qing empire (1636-1912), established by the Jianzhou Jurchen (K: Konju Yojin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) in 1616 under the leadership of Nurhaci, who from the late sixteenth century had been successfully consolidating various Jurchen tribes inhabiting Manchuria.
140) While Nurhaci and Hong Taiji were aware of Zhou and Tang models of statecraft, Hong Taiji's brother, Dorgon, who assumed authority as Prince Regent in 1643, explicitly compared himself--and was compared by others--with the Duke of Zhou.
The common spelling Nurhaci is based on Chinese sources.
18 There was a major border conflict with the Manchus, whose leader Nurhaci began a series of campaigns against the Ming during the last years of the sixteenth century and in 1616 established a new dynasty, the Later Jin, and proclaimed himself emperor.
Manchu is a term designating the peoples led by the brilliant organizer and strategist Nurhaci.
1599), the Manchu officials Nurhaci commissioned to adapt the Mongolian script to Manchu, both knew Mongolian, and Erdeni also knew Chinese.