3/2; Perennial Many Spiral Southern Africa) Sphaerocyperus (1/1) Perennial One Distichous Volkiella (1/1) Annual One Distichous Genus (total/ Dispersal Nutlet Photosynthetic studied species) unit orientation type Alinula (4/2) Nutlet Dorsiventral [C.
ficinioides has not been studied, mainly because mature nutlets were not available.
So far no embryo studies have been done on these taxa, and attempts to locate appropriate material have not been successful as the taxa rarely produce mature nutlets.
3] genera, Androtrichum is diagnosed by the presence of elongated stamen filaments that are persistent and dispersed with the nutlets.
The earliest fossil material comes from the Paleocene/Eocene of western Tennessee and includes a scaly cupule that enclosed three winged nutlets with similarities to Trigonobalanus, a modern relative of oaks, and assigned to the species Trigonobalanoidea americana (Crepet, 1989; Crepet & Nixon, 1989).
Animals may have removed the wings from nutlets and cached the nutlets in the soil for later use (just as modern rodents and jays do with some winged pine seeds; e.
In addition to having their nutlets buried, plants may have benefited from target dispersal, the disproportionate movement of propagules to favorable microhabitats for establishment (Grey & Naughton, 1971; Stapanian & Smith, 1986; Vander Wall, 1993), and long-distance dispersal (Clark, 1998).
Some of these genera may be the descendants of those species that dispersed the nutlets of the emerging nut genera early in the Tertiary.