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(ôksētäN`) or


(prôväNsäl`), member of the Romance group of the Italic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Romance languagesRomance languages,
group of languages belonging to the Italic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Italic languages). Also called Romanic, they are spoken by about 670 million people in many parts of the world, but chiefly in Europe and the Western Hemisphere.
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). The language label Provençal is often restricted in its reference to the dialects of Provence, a region of SE France, but it can be extended to include other related dialects of S France. In its latter, broader sense, Occitan is spoken today, usually along with French, by as many as 5 million people in France; however, it has no official status in that country. Additional speakers are also found in Pyrenean Catalonia, Spain, and in parts of Italy (mainly in the northwest).

In the Middle Ages, Provençal, also called langue d'oc (see langue d'oc and langue d'oïllangue d'oc and langue d'oïl
, names of the two principal groups of medieval French dialects. Langue d'oc
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), became important as the medium of the great literature of the troubadourstroubadours
, aristocratic poet-musicians of S France (Provence) who flourished from the end of the 11th cent. through the 13th cent. Many troubadours were noblemen and crusader knights; some were kings, e.g.
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, who developed it into a standard local Romance language. After the Albigensian Crusade (see under AlbigensesAlbigenses
[Lat.,=people of Albi, one of their centers], religious sect of S France in the Middle Ages. Beliefs and Practices

Officially known as heretics, they were actually Cathari, Provençal adherents of a doctrine similar to the Manichaean dualistic
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) weakened S France, Provençal culture declined and in time the Provençal language was wholly replaced by French as the standard language of France. In the 19th cent. an unsuccessful movement arose to bring back the former glory of Provençal by restoring it as the literary and regional tongue of S France.


See D. C. Haskell, Provençal Literature and Language (1925).

References in periodicals archive ?
Occitan was the medieval language of the Languedoc region of southern France during the 12th to 14th centuries.
Marvin considers the complexity of aristocratic relationships in southern France, problems in defining "Occitania," and challenges the notion that familial, tenurial, and commercial relationships, common goals or even languages provided unity to the people inhabiting this region, when characterising warfare he emphasizes the importance of siege and chevauchee over pitched battles as decisive encounters during the Occitan War--although the latter encompassed some significant political deaths, only four occurred within the confrees of this study.
Scholars of Occitan lyric have shown that the troubadours developed exquisitely subtle forms of citation, particularly in the genre of the sirventes, which came to maturity in the work of Bertran de Born (ca.
Established in Q4 2010 by Thomas de Garidel-Thoron and Herve Gallo, Occitan provides long/short investing across a spectrum of equity products, specifically through the cash, volatility and dividends markets.
This is the first stage in the Community Tourist Office's new editorial approach: as from 2011, this affirmation of the area's Occitan identity, beginning with its language, will be the norm in all tourist brochures.
There is a list of characters (with an asterisk denoting historical figures), a glossary of Occitan words, a map and historical notes (both especially useful) at the end.
This sentencios logo--"hanging in Riom, a village in the Auvergne, Occitan, Pujon persuaded that their destiny onomantic led him to the gallows.
Bailero can never fail to cast its spell, but in this eight-song selection the essence of shepherdess enticing passing male was lacking, for all soprano Joan Rodgers's demurely seductive body-language and conscientious delivery of the Occitan dialect.
For Robin, the lady in question is not the receiver of the message, but the speaker of the words that Canzone I addresses to a real person, Corrado da Starleto, an important literary patron, an individual familiar with the Occitan corpus, since he requested that Uc de Saint Circ compose the Donatz Proensals for him (41).
In her third chapter, Burland addresses the Occitan Ronsasvals, a much briefer version probably written in the early part of the thirteenth century.
Primary sources, written in legal hand in late Gallican Latin and Occitan (particularly Gevaudanais, the local patois), would daunt the most determined of historians, let alone one confined to prison without resources.
Commentator and editor Ulrich Gschwind wonders why no one has proposed calling the thirteenth-century Occitan Romance of Flamenca the 'Roman d Archimbaut' instead.