Okrug


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Okrug

 

(district). (1) Part of the territory of a state assigned to a particular branch of administration—for example, administrative, political, economic, or military districts. In some states the term “district” is applied to various types of administrative-territorial units (administrative districts), territorial groupings of military units or institutions (military districts), and temporary units set up for election campaigns (election districts).

(2) Okrugs in the USSR. In the USSR, okrugs were formed during the administrative-territorial reform of 1923–30 as administrative and economic units smaller than the gubernii (provinces) that had been abolished. They were formed according to the principles of economic regionalization and became parts of krais and oblasts and divided into raions. By 1930 there were 246 okrugs in the USSR. Okrugs were later abolished by a decree of the Central Executive Committee and the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR of July 30, 1930. In the 1930’s and early 1940’s there were only a few okrugs, never more than ten at any one time. They combined administrative raions that had poor transportation connections to the centers of their republics, krais, or oblasts (Tara and Tobol’sk okrugs in Omsk Oblast and Tashauz Okrug in the Turkmen SSR) or that were economically markedly distinct from the main part of the republics, krais, or oblasts (Gur’ev Okrug, a center of the petroleum industry, in Zapadnyi Kazakhstan Oblast, and the agricultural Starobel’sk Okrug in the industrial Donetsk Oblast). There were also several okrugs in areas along the western borders of the USSR, such as Pskov and Kingisepp okrugs in Leningrad Oblast and Velikie Luki Oblast and Opochka okrug in Kalinin Oblast. As of Jan. 1, 1941, there were eight okrugs, including Astrakhan, Narym, and Pechora okrugs. With the abolition of Aldan Okrug in the Yakut ASSR (1946), administrative okrugs ceased to exist in the USSR. In 1946, Transcarpathian Oblast in the Ukrainian SSR was divided into okrugs that had the status of raions.

The national okrug is a form of Soviet autonomy. The first six national okrugs were formed in 1921 within the Gortsy ASSR; by 1924 they had been transformed into autonomous oblasts. As of Jan. 1, 1974, there were ten national okrugs in the USSR, all in the RSFSR.

In prerevolutionary Russia (from the late 18th to early 20th centuries), oblasts and some provinces were divided into okrugs (those in Siberia, Black Sea Province, and partially Kutaisi Province). In Transbaikal, Kuban’, Terek, and Syr Darya oblasts an okrug was called a department (otdel), and in Amur Oblast, an okruga. Two territorial units in Eniseisk Province that corresponded to okrugs were called krais (Turukhansk and Us krais). The Land of the Astrakhan Cossack Host in Astrakhan Province and the Kirghiz and Kalmyk steppes and the Territory of the Nomadic Peoples in Stavropol’ Province corresponded to okrugs. In the early 20th century Zakataly and Sukhumi okrugs were separate administrative-territorial units with the status of provinces.

In imperial Russia there were also various departmental okrugs, such as military, mining, transportation (waterways and highways), and judicial okrugs; udel’nye okruga (departments in charge of property for the maintenance of the imperial family); and school and church okrugs (eparkhii, or dioceses).

References in periodicals archive ?
The second issue discussed the measures to improve the effectiveness of interaction between territorial bodies of federal executive bodies with the executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Okrug and local authorities in the field of forest fire prevention and elimination.
The highest rate among the subjects of the Okrug in 2017 was registered in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug - 10.
1%), 22 applications (4%) from the Kurgan region, 11 appeals from the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District (2%), 10 appeals from the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra 1.
The project is aimed at popularizing the positive features of the regions based on local historical and cultural traditions and increasing the attractiveness of the constituent entities of the Okrug for the development of domestic and inbound tourism.
Electronic auction: services for arranging for russian-language teachers from the cis countries and europe to receive additional professional education in the educational organization of higher education of the khanty-mansiysk autonomous okrug - ugra at the sites of the russian centers of science and culture in bishkek (kyrgyz republic) and bratislava (slovak republic)
Electronic auction: the maintenance of public roads of local significance outside the boundaries of populated areas of the municipality okha city okrug okhotsk: okha-moskalvo; entrance to the village.
Electronic auction: provision of services for maintenance and maintenance of the operational state of the systems and means for providing fire protection for the ats and rtop objects of the aeronavigation of the north-east branch located in the magadan region and the chukotka autonomous okrug
Open competition: rendering of services on complex maintenance of objects of the state budgetary establishment of the yamal-nenets autonomous okrug "district youth center"
Electronic auction: provision of services for the reception, registration, storage, confirmation of quality, bundling, redistribution, delivery and dispensing of medicinal products to citizens residing in the territory of the khanty-mansiysk autonomous okrug - ugra, belonging to certain categories of citizens suffering from certain types of diseases, in the treatment of which medicinal preparations are provided on prescriptions free of charge from the budget of the autonomous okrug in 2018
Open competition: provision of services for the organization and execution in 2018-2019 of certain activities of the state program of the khanty-mansiysk autonomous okrug - ugra "providing affordable and comfortable accommodation for residents of the khanty-mansiysk autonomous okrug - ugra in 2018-2025 and for the period until 2030"
Polar Lights Company operates the Ardalin oil field in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug of the Timan Pechora Basin, about 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) northeast of Moscow.
Electronic auction: delivery and transfer of the immunobiological drug the vaccine for the prevention of tick-borne encephalitis for vaccination of the population of the khanty-mansiysk autonomous okrug - ugra within the framework of the subprogram "prevention of diseases and the formation of a healthy lifestyle.