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a breed of harness horse first bred in the 18th and 19th centuries in Oldenburg, Germany. It was developed by crossing local horses with Spanish, Neapolitan, Arabian, and English saddle horses and, later, with various harness breeds (Cleveland bay, Hanoverian, Normandy). The breed has been kept pure since 1850. Modern Oldenburgs are tall (height at the withers for stallions, 160–170 cm) heavy harness horses. They are used for transport and in agriculture. They are crossed with riding horses to obtain saddle horses for equestrian sports. Oldenburg horses are raised in the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Austria. In the USSR they have been used in the breeding of the Latvian harness horse.