Olszewski, Karol Stanislaw

Olszewski, Karol Stanisław


Born Jan. 29, 1846, in Broniszów; died Mar. 24, 1915, in Kraków. Polish physicist and chemist. Member of the Academy of Sciences in Kraków (1888).

Olszewski graduated from the University of Heidelberg in 1872 and was appointed a professor at the University of Kraków in 1876. Working with Z. F. Wróblewski, Olszewski was the first to obtain measurable quantities of liquid oxygen in 1883, and in 1885 he liquefied argon. He condensed hydrogen but was unable to maintain it in a liquid state; he determined the critical temperature of hydrogen. Between 1896 and 1905 he tried to liquefy helium and reached temperatures of a few degrees above absolute zero. Olszewski also studied the physical properties of condensed methane, nitrogen, and other gases.


“Karl Olszewski.” Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, vol. 48, 1915, pp. 739–41.
“Carol Olszewski.” Chemiker Zeitung, vol. 39, July 10, 1915, pp. 517–19.