Ophthalmoplegia


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Related to Ophthalmoplegia: ophthalmoplegic migraine

Ophthalmoplegia

 

a paralysis of one or more cranial nerves by which the eye muscles are innervated. Ophthalmoplegia may be congenital—a result of underdevelopment of the nuclei of the oculomotor nerves—or acquired as a sequela of inflammatory, toxic, or traumatic lesions in the brain. It can occur in one or both eyes.

Several forms of ophthalmoplegia are distinguished. External ophthalmoplegia is a paralysis of the external ocular muscles with retention of function in the internal muscles. Internal ophthalmoplegia is a paralysis of the internal ocular muscles with retention of function in the external muscles. Total ophthalmoplegia is a paralysis of both internal and external muscle groups. With the external form, the eyeball becomes rigid, although the pupillary reaction to light is not affected. With the internal form, the movements of the eyeball remain normal, but the pupillary reaction disappears and accommodation and convergence are impaired. Ophthalmoplegia is treated by eliminating the underlying cause.

References in periodicals archive ?
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia, although rare, can be the presenting feature of CNS tuberculosis due to tuberculoma in the brainstem.
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is a descriptive term that refers to a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by chronic, progressive, bilateral, and usually symmetric ocular motility deficit and ptosis.
An adolescent young girl with fibrous dysplasia presented with gradually progressive loss of vision of left eye associated with ophthalmoplegia.
In 1954, Tolosa [2] reported the first patient with this syndrome, who presented with left orbital pain, ipsilateral progressive visual loss, total left ophthalmoplegia, and reduced sensation over the first division of the trigeminal nerve.
Her neurological examination revealed right-sided complete ophthalmoplegia with mydriasis, absence of corneal sensory and pupil reflex on the right eye.
External and internal ophthalmoplegia are characterised by ptosis, fixed dilated pupils and loss of eye movements and accommodation.
visual impairment, complete ophthalmoplegia, or well-defined abscess on presentation, or
The medial aspect of the temporal lobe is forced downward over the tentorium, compressing the neighboring oculomotor nerve and resulting in ipsilateral pupillary dilatation, which is often followed by oculomotor ophthalmoplegia.
Pituitary tumours may cause local mass effects (hypopituitarism, headache or visual field defects as a result of extrasellar extension and compression of the optic chiasm) or they may invade local structures (leading to ophthalmoplegia, seizures or hemiparesis).
Nine months after onset of symptoms, she was walking and had regained her strength, but the ophthalmoplegia continued.
A 47-year-old white man with a 20-year history of ptosis presented to an outside institution with complaints of progressively worsening ophthalmoplegia and difficulty swallowing.