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Oporto(o͝opôr`tō), Port. Pôrto, city (1991 pop. 310,600), capital of Porto dist. and Douro Litoral, NW Portugal, near the mouth of the Douro River. It is Portugal's second largest city, after Lisbon, and an important Atlantic port. Its outer harbor is at LeixõesLeixões
, artificial seaport of Oporto, NW Portugal. Built in the late 19th cent, its chief export is port wine.
..... Click the link for more information. . Oporto's most famous export is port wine, to which the city gives its name. Cork, fruits, olive oil, and building materials are also exported. Cotton, silk, and wool textiles are milled, wood and leather goods are made, and there are other manufactures.
The ancient settlement, probably of pre-Roman origin, was known as Cale and later as Portus Cale. Oporto was captured by the Moors in 716 and retaken in 1092. The centuries of war depopulated the town. Henry of BurgundyHenry of Burgundy,
d. 1112, count of Portugal. One of a group of French nobles called by Alfonso VI of León to assist in the fight against the Moors, he arrived in Spain c.1095.
..... Click the link for more information. secured the title of duke of Portucalense in the 11th cent., and Oporto thus gave its name to the state that became a kingdom. It was for some time the chief city, although not the capital, of little Portugal.
Wine exports increased after the Methuen Treaty (1703) with England. The creation by the marquês de Pombal of a wine monopoly brought the "tipplers' revolt" (1757) in Oporto. After the French conquest of Portugal in the Peninsular WarPeninsular War,
1808–14, fought by France against Great Britain, Portugal, Spanish regulars, and Spanish guerrillas in the Iberian Peninsula. Origin and Occupation
..... Click the link for more information. , Oporto was the first city to revolt (1808). It was retaken by the French but liberated (1809) by Wellington. In 1832, in the Miguelist Wars, Dom Pedro I of Brazil long withstood a siege of the city by his brother, Dom Miguel. Oporto was later a center of republican thought, and in 1891 an abortive republican government was set up there.
The city's most conspicuous landmark is the Torre dos Clérigos, a baroque tower; also noteworthy are the Romanesque cathedral, the two-storied Dom Luis bridge across the Douro (1881–87), the Crystal Palace (1865), the Serralves Museum of Contemporary Art (1999), and Rem KoolhaasKoolhaas, Rem
(Remmet Lucas Koolhaas), 1944–, Dutch architect, b. Rotterdam. He began his career as a journalist and screenwriter, moving to London in the late 1960s to study architecture.
..... Click the link for more information. 's celebrated Casa de Música (2005). Oporto is the site of a public university and several private institutions of higher education.
an old Russian early-winter variety of apple. The fruit is very large (200–400 g, some up to one kg) and well-colored and has a pleasant tart winey flavor. The apples are used fresh, dried, frozen, and in jam. The variety is comparatively cold-resistant, rather hardy, and high-yielding (200–400 kg per tree). Oporto apples are grown all over the world; in the USSR they are grown in the RSFSR (Voronezh Oblast and the Northern Caucasus), the Kirghiz SSR, the Kazakh SSR, and the Ukraine. There are several types of Oporto apple, including bloodred Oporto, Aleksandr Oporto (Alma-Ata Oporto), and Kuban’ Oporto.