Because such a small percentage of each oppidum
has been excavated, it is difficult to estimate the population living in these sites.
Wells suggests the union of iron and oppidum was brokered by an all-too-human trait: the desire to accumulate wealth.
Inscriptions scratched on the walls at an oppidum in modern-day Austria list the transactions of Roman merchants for locally produced metal objects, including iron.
If the analogy fits, he says, future work at the site will establish that prehistoric villages dotting the countryside near Kelheim provided much of the labor for the booming iron industry as well as much of the food and other essential resources required by the oppidum.
The visible remains of the oppidum comprise a fortified enclosure known as the 'Upper Town' (Habitat 1), built around 180/170 BC, and the much larger 'Lower Town' (Habitat 2) which was added a generation or so later, around 150 BC (Figure 2).
The intention was to investigate the use of space in the unexcavated parts of the oppidum, focusing in particular on the identification of public open spaces, patterns of movement and architectural forms at variance with those exposed in the excavated areas.
The identification of this 'medial bank' is linked to a further discovery at the extreme east end of the oppidum in a seldom-visited area, covered in dense vegetation, which lies directly below a heavily-modified terrace occupied by a modern agricultural building.
The oppidum of Manching in the plain of the Danube north of Munich is the most thoroughly investigated large settlement known in Celtic Europe.
The 1965-1971 excavation area consists of a band 25-30m wide and 900m long, stretching from roughly the centre of the oppidum to its outer edge.
Herbert Lorenz, who died all too young, has left us, with Volume 16, a piece of Manching's puzzle, contributing to the overall picture of the oppidum and the history of the Celts in general.
In 1960 Werner Kramer reported in ANTIQUITY on excavations at the oppidum of Manching (Kramer 1960), setting out both the leitmotivs in the history of the oppidum and an overview of the finds.
1992) and 1996-1999 with an old meander of the Danube, which runs through the oppidum in the north, has now raised the possibility of a Celtic harbour.