Optics Institute

Optics Institute


(full name, S. I. Vavilov State Optics Institute), a research institution in which work is conducted in optics and its technical applications. The institute was founded in Leningrad in 1918. Academician D. S. Rozhdestvenskii was its founder and first head and scientific director. From 1932 to 1945, Academician S. I. Vavilov was the scientific director, and from 1945 to 1956, Academician A. N. Terenin. Among the prominent scientists who began their scientific careers and worked at the institute were Academicians I. V. Grebensh-chikov, A. A. Lebedev, V. A. Fok, and I. V. Obreimov. As of 1973, Academician V. P. Linnik and corresponding members P. P. Feofilov and Iu. N. Denisiuk were working there.

The Optics Institute has made a major contribution to the development of Soviet optics. Now-classic work on the spectroscopy of atoms of various elements and fundamental research on the processes of luminescence, photochemistry, and photosynthesis, which has made it possible to obtain a great deal of information on the structure of molecules, as well as work on the spectroscopy of activated crystals, has been carried out at the institute.

The Optics Institute is a research center of the opticomechani-cal industry. The composition and manufacturing technology of optical materials have been developed at the institute, and the problems of mechanical treatment of glass and the shaping of the surfaces of high-precision optical parts have been solved. Important studies have been conducted on optical technology, photometry, and lighting engineering: various interference methods and instruments for precision measurements in astronomy and engineering and noncontact optical instruments for monitoring the shape and geometry of machined surfaces in machine building have been proposed and developed. The meniscus system for catadioptric objectives was invented, and high-luminosity optical light sources were developed.

The nature of the latent photographic image was first explained at the Optics Institute, the electrochemical theory of development was proposed and studied, and methods and instruments for testing the sensitometric properties of materials were devised.

Methods of producing high-quality diffraction gratings were first developed in the USSR at the Optics Institute, and precision machines for producing such gratings were designed and their production was set up. The first Soviet electron microscope and the world’s first geodetic light phototachymeter were constructed there. Methods of recording an image in a three-dimensional medium were first developed in the USSR at the Optics Institute. The Soviet school of computational optics was founded at the institute.


References in periodicals archive ?
He worked closely with the devices manufacturer, the Canadian-based National Optics Institute, to design the compact optics and integrated filters that make the device sensitive to chemical compounds, like water and carbon dioxide, which are of interest to cometary scientists.
Built by Canada's National Optics Institute, it was partially designed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center scientist Shahid Aslam.
Supply of different specialty workshop equipment including (a) different workshop equipment, (b) equipment for the Optics Institute Workshop, (c) equipment for the Automotive Workshop, (d) equipment for the ready made garments workshop, also (e) equipment for the spinning & weaving workshop in 5 lots.
He graduated from the Leningrad Precision Mechanics and Optics Institute in 1968 with the qualification of engineer-mathematician, with specialisation in computer science.
Graded reflectivity optics from the National Optics Institute in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, were used to fully fill the laser rod with an unstable resonator mode without a hard aperture.
Through this second start-up that it promotes, the first one being Fiso Technologies of Quebec city in 1994, a manufacturer of Fabry- Perot fiber optic sensors under license of National Optics Institute, Roctest confirms its leadership position in the marketing of a revolutionary line of fiber optic sensors, under the name of Sensoptic, to be used in a large civil engineering structures, its traditional field of activity.