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Formation of thickened white patches on mucous membranes, particularly of the mouth and vulva.



milky-white spots (radius, to 0.5 cm) on the mucous membranes near the skin (for example, on the lower lip) and on the cheeks, tongue, bottom of the mouth, esophagus, cervix uteri, vagina, and urinary bladder.

Leukoplakia is one of the precancerous diseases. Smoking, advanced tooth decay, excessive consumption of alcohol or spices, certain inflammations of the oral cavity, avitaminosis A or B complex, and poorly fitting metal dental bridges, fillings, and crowns may give rise to leukoplakia. The disease occurs in two forms. In simple leukoplakia, the mucous membrane is smooth; its surface resembles mosaic or parquetry. This may be complicated by fissures or erosions. In verrucose leukoplakia, the mucosa is raised and the color varies from pearly to chalky. Patients complain of sensations of petrifaction, burning, and tenderness. Treatment is by surgical removal, electrocoagulation, or radiation therapy.

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Patients with oral leukoplakia or postoperative oral cancer patients for prevention of secondary tumours are considered the best target population for oral cancer chemoprevention because a large proportion of oral cancers are associated with the preceding of longstanding oral leukoplakia.
Comparison of the carcinogenic potential of smokeless tobacco and smoked tobacco by quantifying the excretion of nicotine metabolite NNAL in patients with oral leukoplakia.
Elevated levels of serum growth differentiation factor 15 is associated with oral leukoplakia & oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Effect on oral leukoplakia of reducing or ceasing tobacco smoking.
Clinical and histopathological evaluation and habits associated with the onset of oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia.
Epidemiological and clinicopathological study of oral leukoplakia.
Oral leukoplakia is much more common in smokers and people who chew tobacco.
Focal epithelial hyperplasia, oral squamous papilloma, oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, oral verrucous carcinoma and oral squamous carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of VV Focal epithelial hyperplasia affects oral mucosa, lips, tongue, notably lower lip and more rarely the palate and it is strongly associated with HPV types 13 and 32 [13].
Pre-malignant conditions like oral leukoplakia, cervical dysplasia and xeroderma pigmentosum have been treated in chemopreventive trials with 13-cis-RA(Retinoic Acid).
Oral leukoplakia (OL) is a clinical entity defined by the Word Health Organization (WHO) as "a white plaque of questionable risk having excluded (other) known diseases or disorders that carry no increased risk for cancer.
Laryngeal precancer: A review of the literature, commentary and comparison with oral leukoplakia.
5) Betel use is associated with oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis and squamous cell carcinoma.