organometallic chemistry

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organometallic chemistry,

the reactions and use of a class of compounds (R-M) that contain a covalent bond between carbon and metal. They are prepared either by direct reaction of the metal with an organic compound or by replacement of a metal from another organometallic substance. Their use is based on the polar R-M bond, in which the carbon atom carries a partial negative charge, and on the nature of the metal atom. In synthesis they act as nucleophiles that can bond with relatively positive carbon atoms in compounds such as alkyl halides, aldehydes, and ketones. For example, the Grignard reagent, RMgX (where X equals Br, Cl, or I), and organolithium compounds react with ketones to give secondary alcohols. In industry, butyllithium is used for the polymerization of isoprene in the manufacture of synthetic rubber; metalloorganic compounds serve as catalysts. The semimetals, boron, and silicon are important organometallics; organoboranes are used in synthesis, while organosilicones are polymerized to manufacture plastics and elastomers. Many organometallics are toxic primarily because of the toxicity of the metal. For example tetraethyl leadtetraethyl lead
, (C2H5)4Pb, viscous, colorless, poisonous liquid. It is an organometallic compound prepared by reacting ethyl chloride with a sodium-lead alloy.
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 has been banned as gasoline additive and the conversion of mercury to mercury alkyls by fish has had serious consequences in Japan.
References in periodicals archive ?
Understanding Organometallic Reaction Mechanisms and Catalysis: Computational and Experimental Tools
Smalley Institute, Tour took an interest in organometallic reaction development, and experimented heavily with carbon nanotubes, molecular electronics and nanomachines.
The file contains organic and organometallic reaction information derived from the weekly printed information service Cheminform.
Artificial metalloenzymes combine attractive features of both homogeneous catalysts and enzymes, including the possibility to genetically optimize the catalytic performance of new-to-nature organometallic reactions.
Ulrich Fekl received his PhD (summa cum laude) in 2000 from the University of Erlangen-Niirnberg, Germany under the supervision of Rudi van Eldik, for research on mechanisms of inorganic and organometallic reactions.
Acylation, alkylation, alkyl lithium reactions, amidation, bromination, chlorination, cyclization, decarboxylation, electrochemistry, electrophilic substitution, esterification, fluoride exchange, hydrogenation, nucleophilic substitutions, organometallic reactions, oxidations, palladium catalyzed carbonylation, phase transfer catalysis, photochemistry, reductions, sulfonation, vapor phase catalysis.
Required Mass Spectrometer having a linear ion trap coupled with electrospray ionization will be used to study the reaction intermediates of organic and organometallic reactions.
Electrochemical/sonoelectrochemical synthesis and conversion in green media (aqueous media/microemulsions, ionic liquids, and super critical fluids) using renewable energy: biomass conversion; electrocatalytic hydrogenation for chemoselective electrohydrogenations; electrocatalytic organometallic reactions.
Advantages and limitations of organometallic reactions in aqueous media
In his research, Snieckus has devised new organometallic reactions based on lithium and transition metal catalytic reactions which, aside from having fundamental value, have had considerable impact in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the production of drugs, plant-protection agents, and liquid crystals.
New Ligands for Enantioselective Catalysis of Organometallic Reactions -- V.
Investigations of the effect of high pressure on organic and organometallic reactions form part of Keay's projects.