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For instance in case of an MPEG image, the video data is comprised of i-frame, p-frame and b-frame.
Let P be a reconstructed P-frame based on I, and P' be the reconstructed version based on IWM.
Recall that a P-frame is a frame in which every cozero element is complemented.
When prediction is performed from the previous frames, inter frame is called P-frame (previous frame) and in case the prediction is performed from the next frame, inter frame is called B-frame (bidirectional frame).
1] concerns sequences satisfying the lower p-frame condition, but the proof that C is closed does not use the validity of the lower p-frame condition.
Briefly, B-frames can borrow redundancies from the previous and/or next I- or P-frame.
6 rate control [4], we encoded an I-frame followed by P-frame of Foreman sequence at 16 kbps with frame rate of 10 fps.
For example, transmission errors in a P-frame immediately right after an I-frame will affect all the following frames in the GOP whereas an error in the last P-frame in the GOP does not affect any other frames.
This gives us an IBBP pattern, so each B-frame is adjacent to an I- or P-frame.
In [2], scene change is detected by the existing motion vectors and residual data, but only for P-frame prediction.
Other useful details include a file creation date, whether the file contains dropped frames, and the ability to visualize the I-, B-, and P-frame sequence used in the file, which becomes especially important with H.
Loss of a packet of P-frame number 329 shows a lower PSNR value, however there is no propagating effect.