PPP


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PPP

(communications)

PPP

PPP

(Point-to-Point Protocol) The most popular method for transporting IP packets over a serial link between the user and the ISP. Developed in 1994 by the IETF and superseding the SLIP protocol, PPP establishes the session between the user's computer and the ISP using its own Link Control Protocol (LCP). PPP supports PAP and CHAP authentication, as well as EAP, which is a conduit for numerous other authentication methods (see PAP, CHAP and EAP).

Full-Duplex and Multilink
PPP can run on any full-duplex link from POTS to ISDN to T1, etc. On dial-up connections, PPP can hang up a low-quality call and redial. Using Multilink PPP (MLPPP), two modems and phone lines can be bonded together to increase speed.

PPP Encapsulates the Packets
PPP encapsulates high-level protocol packets in HDLC-based frames; for example, IP over PPP (IPCP) for the Internet and IPX over PPP (IPXCP) for NetWare networks, and it can multiplex different protocols over the same circuit. PPP also supports ATM and Ethernet frames for DSL and cable modem hookups (see PPPoA and PPPoE). See PPTP and SLIP.


PPP and L2TP Together
PPP and its counterpart, the Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP), are used together to extend a PPP session across the Internet for remote users.







The PPP Stack
PPP resides at the data link layer in the stack. Its typical use is accessing the Internet via TCP/IP over an analog modem (RS-232), ISDN or a T1 line. However, PPP can also simultaneously multiplex other transport protocols such as IPX, Appletalk and DECnet.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the current scenario, opposition senators from PPP, PTI, MQM-P, JI, ANP, six independent senators from Fata and seven from Balochistan have their opinion in the election of the opposition leader.
He will become the president, if the PPP forms government in the centre but Bilawal [Bhutto Zardari] is not the prime minister.
Nasir Mehmood Soomro, emir of JUI-F Larkana chapter, said the movement that his party had launched against Larkana mayor for his failure to rectify battered sewerage system, road network and other civic issues had grown into a major movement against PPP.
He said PPP always did politics for the rights of people and raised issues related to common masses of the country.
It is learnt that PPP has offered PTI to make joint efforts for the Chairman and Deputy Chairman of upper house of the parliament to create hurdles for ruling PML-N.
Awami Muslim League chief Sheikh Rasheed meanwhile said whether the chairman and deputy chairman are from PPP or some other party is insignificant, as everyone has their eyes on upcoming general elections and presidency.
They can also have access to all the PPP Center's services to help them develop and implement bankable PPP projects.
Dio expressed her gratitude for the massive success of PPP.
Each of our proposed regional PPP units includes several economically linked states.
The Philippines now has a mature PPP program and is considered the most improved in Asia-Pacific after various reforms were initiated by the present administration.
Introduce improved types of PPP, BTO-rs (BuildTransfer-Operate-risk sharing) (3) and BTO-a (Build-Transfer-Operate-adjusted) (4), where risk is more equitably shared between the government and private actors.
Thus, research work "How to Provide Success for PPP in Russia: Review for 2012" by Ernst & Young indicates that main obstacles blocking wider implementation of PPP in Russia are the following: federal legislation does not meet modern requirements; poor quality of PPP projects' preparation; inadequate readiness of state authorities to implement PPP projects in practice.