Pachacamac


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Pachacamac

(pä'chäkämäk`), ruins of a walled Native American settlement, Peru, about 25 mi (40 km) SE of Lima in the Lurin Valley. This site, which contains a number of pyramids, was considered one of the most important religious monuments by the indigenous people of the central Andes. Spanish historical records, along with extensive archaeological research at the site, have served to clarify its history and significance. By the Early Intermediate period (c.A.D. 200–600) this site contained at least one pyramid, a cemetery, and a polychrome fresco of fish. The Huari Empire, based in the south central highlands of Peru during the period A.D. 600–800, gained hegemony over the central coast of Peru and sponsored construction at Pachacamac, probably turning it into a major Huari administrative center. Numerous Huari-influenced designs appear on the ceramics and textiles of this site's large cemetery. After Huari's collapse, Pachacamac grew in size, eventually covering c.210 acres (85 hectares). During this late phase (c.800–1450), the majority of its architectural compounds and pyramids were constructed. The primary architectural unit is the walled enclosure containing a stepped pyramid, storage structures, and patios. The site is organized around two perpendicular avenues, aligned with the cardinal directions, which cross one another at the center of the site. Historical sources indicate that in the 15th cent., the Rimac and Lurin valleys formed a small polity known as the Ichma, which established an alliance with the Inca. Following the expansion of the Inca empire, Pachacamac became an important Inca administrative center, while maintaining its status as a religious shrine. The Inca built five separate complexes there, including the Pyramid of the Sun and the Mamacuna. The latter contains fine Inca masonry in its entrance gate, a rarity on the coast. The Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro heard about Pachacamac from the Inca, while holding the Inca King Atahualpa prisoner at Cajamarca in 1532. He promptly sent an expedition to sack the center. The Spanish conquerors seized a large amount of silver and gold from the site and destroyed an idol. Spanish accounts indicate Pachacamac was one of the holiest shrines in the central Andes. The site's name derives from the Quechua term for the coastal deity, Pacha Camac [he who vitalizes the universe]. The main temple at the site was dedicated to this deity and held a famous oracle. Pilgrims traveled to the center from great distances, and its cemetery was considered sacrosanct. The site of Pachacamac has been preserved, and one of the Inca structures, the Mamacuna, has been reconstructed.
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The 2 huacos from the Pachacamac Valley (Figure 3) were first published by Ashmead in 1907 (21).
While encroaching development and expansion of the city continue to threaten its preservation, Pachacamac is an important Peruvian treasure, "one of the most important centers in Andean culture," Holmquist says.
Notices were made for journalists Kintto Lucas, an Inter Press Service correspondent who also writes for Latinamerica Press, Marion Carrion of Pachacamac Agency and Marlene Toro of the biweekly Tintaji, as well as economist Pablo Davalos of the Latin American Council of Social Sciences and Mauricio Ortiz, a member of the group monitoring Plan Colombia.
Tupa-Gala, who hates Rusti for having married into nobility, proclaims that the only way to prevent further manifestations of irritability on the part of Pachacamac is to celebrate a capac-cocha, the sacrificial offering of a child.
In Pachacamac, on the outskirts of Lima, a coastal fog known as "garua" blots out the sun for much of the year.
Telefonica de Peru already provides high-speed Internet and wireless voice services to small-to-medium enterprises throughout Lima, including the Cerro Grande, San Juan, San Jose, Vitrate, Pachacamac, El Retablo and Washington regions.
By means of a checklist of formal attributes compiled from Inka, Chimu and Pachacamac cases, Isbell reassesses earlier complexes up and down the Andean cordillera, from Wari (Pikillacta, Viracochapampa and Huari itself) to Tiwanaku traditions (Omo and various locales at Tiwanaku itself) to Marcahuamachuco, and finds that each one was probably a palace.
He links the burial sites found in the island's La Cruz Cove to sanctuaries located in Armatambo (in the Chorrillos district in southern Lima) and Pachacamac, about twenty miles south of the city.
Take an 11 day introductory tour of Peru, visiting pre-Inca ruins of Pachacamac, fly across the Andes to Cusco, then pick up the train to Muchu Picchu, and visit the reed islands of Lake Titicaca.
The addition of Airspan's AS4000 wireless DSL platform will enable Telefonica to deliver both wireless voice and high-speed data to residential subscribers and small-to-medium enterprises throughout the capital city of Lima, including the Cerro Grande, San Juan, San Jose, Vitrate, Pachacamac, El Retablo and Washington regions during the project's first phase.