a means of hauling freight in mountains, deserts, forest-swamp areas, and taiga with the aid of pack animals.
Pack-animal transport is used in places where, because of the lack of roads, the nature of the area, or weather conditions, it is impossible to use wheeled transport, motor vehicles, or helicopters. Among the animals used for this purpose are horses, mules, camels, donkeys, and deer. In order to fasten and hold the freight on the animal’s back, packs or packsaddles are used. The standard weight load for packs depends on the type of animal and the roughness of the ter-rain; it usually amounts to one-fifth to one-third of the animal’s weight.