Palaeologus

Palaeologus

(pālēŏl`əgəs), Greek dynasty that ruled the Byzantine Empire from its restoration in 1261 to its final conquest by the Turks in 1453. The first emperor was Michael VIIIMichael VIII
(Michael Palaeologus), c.1225–1282, Byzantine emperor (1261–82), first of the Palaeologus dynasty. Following the murder of the regent for Emperor John IV of Nicaea, he was appointed (1258) regent and, soon afterward (1259), coemperor.
..... Click the link for more information.
, restorer of the empire. He was succeeded by Andronicus IIAndronicus II
(Andronicus Palaeologus) , 1258–1332, Byzantine emperor (1282–1328), son and successor of Michael VIII. He devoted himself chiefly to church affairs, renewing the schism by renouncing (1282) the union established at the Second Council of Lyons.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (reigned 1282–1328) and Andronicus IIIAndronicus III
(Andronicus Palaeologus), c.1296–1341, Byzantine emperor (1328–41), grandson of Andronicus II, whom he deposed after a series of civil wars. His chief minister was John Cantacuzene (later Emperor John VI).
..... Click the link for more information.
 (reigned 1328–41). John VJohn V
(John Palaeologus) , 1332–91, Byzantine emperor (1341–91), son and successor of Andronicus III. Forced to fight John VI (John Cantacuzene), who usurped the throne during his minority, he came into power in 1354.
..... Click the link for more information.
 acceded in 1341, but was kept from the throne until 1354 by John VI (John Cantacuzene) and from 1376 until 1379 by his son, Andronicus IV. At his death (1391) Manuel IIManuel II
(Manuel Palaeologus), 1350–1425, Byzantine emperor (1391–1425), son and successor of John V. In his youth he was taken captive by the Turks, and during his reign the Ottomans reduced the empire to Constantinople and its dependencies in the Peloponnesus.
..... Click the link for more information.
 succeeded and ruled until 1425; he had to share his rule with John VIIJohn VII
(John Palaeologus) , c.1370–1408, Byzantine emperor, grandson of John V. Backed by the sultan Beyazid I, he usurped (1390) the throne from John V but was dethroned by his uncle, Manuel II, six months later.
..... Click the link for more information.
 after 1399. Manuel's sons John VIIIJohn VIII
(John Palaeologus), 1390–1448, Byzantine emperor (1425–48), son and successor of Manuel II. When he acceded, the Byzantine Empire had been reduced by the Turks to the city of Constantinople.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (reigned 1425–48) and Constantine XI (reigned 1449–53) succeeded him. Constantine XI was killed when the Turks stormed Constantinople. Branches of the Palaeologus family survived in various European countries. One branch ruled the Italian marquisate of Montferrat from the 14th cent. until the family's extinction in 1536. Distinguished for their erudition, the Palaeologi helped the Greek people to retain their cultural identity after their conquest by the Ottoman Turks. As statesmen they had to contend with the pressure of the Turks and with the reluctance of Western Europe to come to the aid of the Orthodox Greeks. Their rule marked the high point of feudalism, partitions of the empire, and internal conflict between religious and secular groups.

Palaeologus

 

the name of the last dynasty of Byzantine emperors.

Michael VIII, founder of the dynasty, was from an aristocratic family known from the 11th century. He restored the Byzantine Empire in 1261 (it had fallen in 1204) and ruled it until 1282. Earlier—from the beginning of 1259 until 1261—he was coruler with the Nicaean emperor John IV Lascaris. In 1261 he became sole ruler of the Nicaean Empire.

Andronicus II ruled from 1282 until 1328. His grandson An-dronicus III was sovereign from 1328 until 1341. John V (1341–1391) had corulers: the imperial throne was usurped by John VI Cantacuzenus (1341–54); by John V’s son Andronicus IV (1376— 79); and by Andronicus IV’s son John VII (April to September 1390). There followed Manuel II (1391–1425), John V’s second son; John VIII (1425–48); and Constantine XI (1449–53), brother of John VIII. Their rule was a period marked by the political weakening of Byzantium, the feudal fragmentation of the country, Venetian and Genoan domination of the economy, and attacks on Byzantium by the Seljuk Turks.

Constantine XI’s niece Zoe (Sofia) married Ivan III Vasil’evich.

References in periodicals archive ?
A notable exception, in chapter LXVIII, is the affecting and dignified "last farewell" of the Emperor Constantine Palaeologus on the night before the collapse of Constantinople.
A Byzantine Prince Latinized: Theodore Palaeologus, Marquis of Montferrat," en Byzantion 38 (1968), pp.
If he is able to solve the complicated puzzle, he will be honored as "Emperor-in-Exile: Constantine Palaeologus XV," but the story is so fascinatingly constructed that his actual quest for the Byzantine throne is not central to the literary gratification it provides readers.
The capital of the Empire was moved to Adrianople in northern Bulgaria under John VIII Palaeologus around 1350, as Constantinople was taken by marauders from the east more than once.
He referred to a recent "provocative statement" against the pope over comments he made in a speech in 2006 where Benedict quoted 14th century Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaeologus as saying everything the Prophet Mohammad brought was evil, "such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached.
What stirred up the rage of the Muslim world is the citation he made from the dialogue of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaeologus.
3-228) which begins with Our Lord's crucifixion and ends with the controversy over the Pope's quotation from Manuel II Palaeologus which offended the Mohammedan rent-a-mob.
148) The Pope quoted Manuel II Palaeologus, a fourteenth century Byzantine Emperor, during a speech delivered on September 12, 2006, at the University of Regensburg in Bavaria, Germany, saying: "Show me just what Muhammad brought that was new, and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached.
The Letters of Manuel II Palaeologus, CFHB, VIII, Washington, 1977.
The words were quoted from Byzantine Emperor, Manuel II Palaeologus.
For example, the reader misses any reference to Richard II's correspondence with the Byzantine emperor, along with his invitation to Manuel II Palaeologus to visit England, as indication of the English monarch's efforts at imperial affiliation at a time when he aspired to election as the next Holy Roman Emperor.