Palaeologus

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Palaeologus

(pālēŏl`əgəs), Greek dynasty that ruled the Byzantine Empire from its restoration in 1261 to its final conquest by the Turks in 1453. The first emperor was Michael VIIIMichael VIII
(Michael Palaeologus), c.1225–1282, Byzantine emperor (1261–82), first of the Palaeologus dynasty. Following the murder of the regent for Emperor John IV of Nicaea, he was appointed (1258) regent and, soon afterward (1259), coemperor.
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, restorer of the empire. He was succeeded by Andronicus IIAndronicus II
(Andronicus Palaeologus) , 1258–1332, Byzantine emperor (1282–1328), son and successor of Michael VIII. He devoted himself chiefly to church affairs, renewing the schism by renouncing (1282) the union established at the Second Council of Lyons.
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 (reigned 1282–1328) and Andronicus IIIAndronicus III
(Andronicus Palaeologus), c.1296–1341, Byzantine emperor (1328–41), grandson of Andronicus II, whom he deposed after a series of civil wars. His chief minister was John Cantacuzene (later Emperor John VI).
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 (reigned 1328–41). John VJohn V
(John Palaeologus) , 1332–91, Byzantine emperor (1341–91), son and successor of Andronicus III. Forced to fight John VI (John Cantacuzene), who usurped the throne during his minority, he came into power in 1354.
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 acceded in 1341, but was kept from the throne until 1354 by John VI (John Cantacuzene) and from 1376 until 1379 by his son, Andronicus IV. At his death (1391) Manuel IIManuel II
(Manuel Palaeologus), 1350–1425, Byzantine emperor (1391–1425), son and successor of John V. In his youth he was taken captive by the Turks, and during his reign the Ottomans reduced the empire to Constantinople and its dependencies in the Peloponnesus.
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 succeeded and ruled until 1425; he had to share his rule with John VIIJohn VII
(John Palaeologus) , c.1370–1408, Byzantine emperor, grandson of John V. Backed by the sultan Beyazid I, he usurped (1390) the throne from John V but was dethroned by his uncle, Manuel II, six months later.
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 after 1399. Manuel's sons John VIIIJohn VIII
(John Palaeologus), 1390–1448, Byzantine emperor (1425–48), son and successor of Manuel II. When he acceded, the Byzantine Empire had been reduced by the Turks to the city of Constantinople.
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 (reigned 1425–48) and Constantine XI (reigned 1449–53) succeeded him. Constantine XI was killed when the Turks stormed Constantinople. Branches of the Palaeologus family survived in various European countries. One branch ruled the Italian marquisate of Montferrat from the 14th cent. until the family's extinction in 1536. Distinguished for their erudition, the Palaeologi helped the Greek people to retain their cultural identity after their conquest by the Ottoman Turks. As statesmen they had to contend with the pressure of the Turks and with the reluctance of Western Europe to come to the aid of the Orthodox Greeks. Their rule marked the high point of feudalism, partitions of the empire, and internal conflict between religious and secular groups.

Palaeologus

 

the name of the last dynasty of Byzantine emperors.

Michael VIII, founder of the dynasty, was from an aristocratic family known from the 11th century. He restored the Byzantine Empire in 1261 (it had fallen in 1204) and ruled it until 1282. Earlier—from the beginning of 1259 until 1261—he was coruler with the Nicaean emperor John IV Lascaris. In 1261 he became sole ruler of the Nicaean Empire.

Andronicus II ruled from 1282 until 1328. His grandson An-dronicus III was sovereign from 1328 until 1341. John V (1341–1391) had corulers: the imperial throne was usurped by John VI Cantacuzenus (1341–54); by John V’s son Andronicus IV (1376— 79); and by Andronicus IV’s son John VII (April to September 1390). There followed Manuel II (1391–1425), John V’s second son; John VIII (1425–48); and Constantine XI (1449–53), brother of John VIII. Their rule was a period marked by the political weakening of Byzantium, the feudal fragmentation of the country, Venetian and Genoan domination of the economy, and attacks on Byzantium by the Seljuk Turks.

Constantine XI’s niece Zoe (Sofia) married Ivan III Vasil’evich.

References in periodicals archive ?
The problem was compounded as Constantinos Palaiologos Street, a road parallel to Rigenis Street in the old town was also closed on Monday and Tuesday, this time for works by Cyta and the electricity authority.
Caitlin Bunt (24, USA), Felix Lamy (21, Canada), Alexandros Palaiologos (24, Mexico), Riccardo Manfredini (24, Italy), Xuezi Li (23, China), Shihab Solaiman (23, UAE) and Jaden Partridge (21, Australia), all won a once-in-a-lifetime, 12-month placement - split between automotive and Formula One engineering - plus accommodation, access to an INFINITI Q30 company car and a full salary.
The Ottomans were commanded by 21-year-old Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, who defeated an army commanded by Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos.
Then there was the delegation from the Byzantine lands, whose emperor, John VIII Palaiologos, was the heir of Constantine and Justinian.
Khilji et al (2006) and Palaiologos et al (2011) argue that employee satisfaction is the missing piece between HR practices-performance debate and organizations should focus on making employees satisfied with the appraisal systems.
Aside from the huge challenges of the bailout review, Palaiologos points to the government's lackluster record in actually operating the machinery of the state.
FAILLER (1999) = FAILLER, Albert, "Le second mariage d'Andronic II Palaiologos," en Revue des etudes byzantines (REB) 57 (1999), pp.
The desperate 700 member Byzantine delegation of patriarchs and intellectuals led by Emperor John VIII Palaiologos grudgingly accepted all theological conditions imposed by Roman papacy and formally the whole Church was united.
After the Great Migration finished the Hellenic Antiquity, some Hellenes left their homeland and became the Palaiologos, Medicis and Bonapartes.
Pope Benedict caused uproar among Muslims when he quoted Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos during a lecture in September 2006: "Show me just what [the Prophet] Muhammed brought that was new, and there you'll find things only evil and inhuman .
At the lecture, he quoted Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos , saying: "Show me just what Muhammad brought that was new and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached.
On another note, intriguingly, the author calls Michael VIII Palaiologos (r.