Cypselae truncate to rostrate at the apex, glabrous to pubescent; pappus of capillary bristles to paleaceous, scabrose to plumose, equal in length, rarely pappus absent.
Cypselae slightly constricted at the apex, glabrous; pappus of scabrid, narrowly paleaceous bristles.
Cypselae attenuate at the apex, pubescent; pappus paleaceous setaceous, scabrid bristles, unequally fused at the base.
Capitulescences a dichotomous cyme; capitula pedunculate, homogamous, discoid; receptacle paleaceous, paleae embracing all the florets; involucre one- to two-seriate.
Cypselae truncate at the apex, pubescent; pappus of very short, crown-like, scabrid bristles, narrowly paleaceous, or pappus absent in the outer cypselae.
Cypselae truncate at the apex, glabrous to pubescent; pappus of bristles filiform to narrowly paleaceous, laciniate to plumose, rarely crown-like.