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a nationalistic, chauvinist bourgeois ideology, which claims that all peoples speaking Turkic languages, and the Muslim Turks in particular, are one nation and should unite to form a single state under the aegis of Turkey.

Pan-Turkism originated at the turn of the 20th century and evolved as an outgrowth of Turkism, an early form of Turkish bourgeois nationalism. After the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, as reactionary tendencies became stronger in the policies of the Committee of Union and Progress, Pan-Turkism began to prevail over Turkism, which it had completely displaced by the eve of World War I (1914–18). Like Pan-Islam, Pan-Turkism was used by the Young Turks as a basic means of propaganda in their effort to draw Turkey into a war with Russia.

Pan-Turkism was also actively propagandized by certain bourgeois nationalist parties and movements in Middle Asia and Transcaucasia (Jadidism, for example), which endeavored to distract the workers from the revolutionary struggle and separate the national borderlands fom Russia. After the October Revolution of 1917 in Russia, many counterrevolutionaries in Transcaucasia and Middle Asia opposed Soviet power in the name of Pan-Turkism; however, they did not find support among the masses.

The policy of Pan-Turkism was also rejected by the leaders of the Kemalist Revolution, who accepted the principles of Turkism, distinguished it from Pan-Turkism, and even replaced the term “Turkism” with “nationalism,” a concept limited to Turkish territory. However, after the death of Mustafa Kemal Pasha (Atatürk), and especially during World War II (1939–45), Pan-Turkists became active in Turkey, establishing close ties with the fascist Germans, conducting an embittered anti-Soviet campaign, calling for the seizure of Soviet territories, and practically transforming Pan-Turkism into a Turkish variety of fascism. Since World War II, Pan-Turkism has been used by reactionary circles in Turkey as one of the chief instruments of anticommu-nist policy.


Tveritinova, A. S. “Mladoturki i pantiurkizm.” Kr. soobshcheniia instituta vostokovedeniia, 1956, no. 22.
Eremeev, D. E. “Kemalizm i pantiurkizm.” Narody Azii i Afriki, 1963, no. 3.
Gasanova, E. Iu. “Obshchestvennaia mysl’ v Turtsii. …” In Sovremennaia filosofskaia i sotsiologicheskaia mysl’ stran Vostoka. Moscow, 1965.
Berkes, N. The Development of Secularism in Turkey. Montreal, 1964.


References in periodicals archive ?
Second is the growing influx of Tatar and Turkic emigres from the Tsarist Russia into the Ottoman Empire where they began to propagate Turkish nationalism and pan-Turkism through a range of publications and associational activities.
Other countries, including Russia, have banned them for their supposed involvement in espionage activities and for promoting pan-Islamism and pan-Turkism.
Ankara has been promoting the commercial aspect of pan-Turkism along the old Silk Road, with oil and gas pipelines to pass through Turkey from Central Asia and the Middle East to Europe.
Established in 1969, the MHP was an ultra-radical movement in the 1970s and 80s, militating for pan-Turkism in the GME, Europe and the Far East in a union among all the Turkic peoples.
The official comments came as Sedat Peker, a notorious convicted criminal kingpin who actively promotes the idea of pan-Turkism, has issued death threats against intellectuals who signed the declaration.
In the 1990s and afterwards, the existing pan-Turkism in the MHP corpus was revived by establishing relations with Central Asian Turkic Republics as a State policy, in consequence of the Soviets' disintegration, PKK terrorism and the Kurdish issue.
If successful, discussions to form a coalition with Turkey's ultra-nationalist, Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) which traces its roots to pan-Turkism could complicate relations with China.
6) Many had long assumed that Moscow undertook this process to combat the specter of pan-Turkism, according to the classical tactic of divide et impera.
Sharp statements and criticisms expressed by Turkish leaders against Russian government also added to the sensitivities and this Turkey's measure was translated as an attempt for dissemination of Pan-Turkism in Central Asia and Caucasus.
We agree with his opinion that pan-Turkism is a threat for Armenia but we do not agree with the way he wants to solve this
The Turkish prime minister's failure to revive the Ottoman Empire based on Islamism has pushed him to racism and Pan-Turkism," he added, indicating that the protests began because of Erdoy-an's unsuccessful and reactionary plans.
Ankara has been promoting a commercial aspect of pan-Turkism along the old Silk Road, with oil and gas pipelines to pass through Turkey from Central Asia and the Middle East to Europe.