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a nationalistic, chauvinist bourgeois ideology, which claims that all peoples speaking Turkic languages, and the Muslim Turks in particular, are one nation and should unite to form a single state under the aegis of Turkey.

Pan-Turkism originated at the turn of the 20th century and evolved as an outgrowth of Turkism, an early form of Turkish bourgeois nationalism. After the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, as reactionary tendencies became stronger in the policies of the Committee of Union and Progress, Pan-Turkism began to prevail over Turkism, which it had completely displaced by the eve of World War I (1914–18). Like Pan-Islam, Pan-Turkism was used by the Young Turks as a basic means of propaganda in their effort to draw Turkey into a war with Russia.

Pan-Turkism was also actively propagandized by certain bourgeois nationalist parties and movements in Middle Asia and Transcaucasia (Jadidism, for example), which endeavored to distract the workers from the revolutionary struggle and separate the national borderlands fom Russia. After the October Revolution of 1917 in Russia, many counterrevolutionaries in Transcaucasia and Middle Asia opposed Soviet power in the name of Pan-Turkism; however, they did not find support among the masses.

The policy of Pan-Turkism was also rejected by the leaders of the Kemalist Revolution, who accepted the principles of Turkism, distinguished it from Pan-Turkism, and even replaced the term “Turkism” with “nationalism,” a concept limited to Turkish territory. However, after the death of Mustafa Kemal Pasha (Atatürk), and especially during World War II (1939–45), Pan-Turkists became active in Turkey, establishing close ties with the fascist Germans, conducting an embittered anti-Soviet campaign, calling for the seizure of Soviet territories, and practically transforming Pan-Turkism into a Turkish variety of fascism. Since World War II, Pan-Turkism has been used by reactionary circles in Turkey as one of the chief instruments of anticommu-nist policy.


Tveritinova, A. S. “Mladoturki i pantiurkizm.” Kr. soobshcheniia instituta vostokovedeniia, 1956, no. 22.
Eremeev, D. E. “Kemalizm i pantiurkizm.” Narody Azii i Afriki, 1963, no. 3.
Gasanova, E. Iu. “Obshchestvennaia mysl’ v Turtsii. …” In Sovremennaia filosofskaia i sotsiologicheskaia mysl’ stran Vostoka. Moscow, 1965.
Berkes, N. The Development of Secularism in Turkey. Montreal, 1964.


References in periodicals archive ?
If successful, discussions to form a coalition with Turkey's ultra-nationalist, Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) which traces its roots to pan-Turkism could complicate relations with China.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in late 1991, Ankara increased its efforts in promoting a revival of pan-Turkism along the old Silk Road, with oil and gas pipelines to pass through Turkey from Central Asia and the Middle East to Europe.
Sharp statements and criticisms expressed by Turkish leaders against Russian government also added to the sensitivities and this Turkey's measure was translated as an attempt for dissemination of Pan-Turkism in Central Asia and Caucasus.
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Ankara has been promoting a commercial aspect of pan-Turkism along the old Silk Road, with oil and gas pipelines to pass through Turkey from Central Asia and the Middle East to Europe.
After having his influence increased in the Nationalistic Ittihadist regime, in late 1915, he became a deputy and was a strong adherent of Pan-Turkism and the Ottoman expansion policies to unite all Turkic nations.
Far from Sri Lanka, the Kurdish national movement in Turkey, a chronic case of ethnic conflict in the Middle East, has remained defiant to the assimilation and pan-Turkism policies of this country since the rise of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923.
AaThe 'deep state' advocates extreme Turkish nationalism and revived Pan-Turkism.
Remaining chapters explore Eurasianism as a reaction to the rise of pan-Turkism, the role of philosopher Lev Karsavin in the Eurasian movement, theories of absolutism and authority in Eurasian ideology, Polish reactions to Eurasianism in the interwar period, and anti-Semitism in Eurasian historiography (particularly in the writings of Lev Gumilev).
In 1992, Professor Aydin Yalcin noted that pan-Turkism was an ideology whose time had arrived; the collapse of the Soviet Union and the discrediting of communism, he argued, finally made the public expression and support for pan-Turkism possible.
Ankara has been promoting a commercial aspect of pan-Turkism along the Silk Road, with oil and gas pipelines to pass through Turkey from Central Asia to Europe.
The early supporters of pan-Turkism considered the East to represent new opportunities for the restoration of the Ottoman Empire.