Bougainville

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Bougainville

(bo͞o`gənvĭl, Fr. bo͞ogăNvēl`), volcanic island (1990 est. pop. 154,000), c.3,880 sq mi (10,050 sq km), SW Pacific, largest in the Solomon Islands chain. With Buka and smaller neighboring islands, it forms an autonomous region of Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinea
, officially Independent State of Papua New Guinea, independent Commonwealth nation (2005 est. pop. 5,545,000), 183,540 sq mi (475,369 sq km), SW Pacific.
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. Bougainville is rugged and densely forested. There are several good harbors, with the main port at Kieta. The economy is mainly agricultural; major exports are copra, ivory nuts, green snails, cocoa, tortoise shells, and trepang. Copper mining was important until 1989 when an insurrection closed down the mine. The center of administration is at Sohano, a coral island in the Buka Passage.

The island was explored in 1768 by the French navigator Louis de BougainvilleBougainville, Louis Antoine de
, 1729–1811, French navigator. He accompanied Montcalm to Canada as aide-de-camp, and he later (c.1764) established a colony on the Falkland Islands but had to surrender the settlement to Spain (1766).
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. Unlike the rest of the Solomon IslandsSolomon Islands,
independent Commonwealth nation (2009 pop. 515,870), c.15,500 sq mi (40,150 sq km), SW Pacific, E of New Guinea. The islands that constitute the nation of the Solomon Islands—Guadalcanal, Malaita, New Georgia, the Santa Cruz Islands, Choiseul, Ysabel
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, which became British territory, Bougainville and Buka became part of German New Guinea in 1884. Occupied by Australian forces during World War I, Bougainville was mandated to Australia by the League of Nations in 1920. During World War II the island was the last Japanese stronghold in the Solomons. It became part of Papua New Guinea in 1973, despite strong secessionist sentiment. A bloody secessionist uprising, begun in the late 1980s and sparked by copper mining, persisted through much of the 1990s; in 1998 a cease-fire, monitored by Australian-led forces, went into effect. A peace accord granting Bougainville broad autonomy and promising a referendum on independence by 2020 was signed in 2001. Peacekeeping forces were replaced by a smaller transition team in 2003, a constitution was adopted in 2004, and a government was elected in 2005. The autonomous government has faced challenges from former fighters on both sides of the uprising, but negotiations have led to a number of peace agreements.

Bougainville

 

a volcanic island in the Pacific Ocean; the largest of the Solomon Islands. Part of New Guinea, a protectorate of Australia. Area, 10, 000 sq km; population, 71, 700 (1966). The terrain is mountainous; there are elevations to 3, 123 m (Mount Balbi). Vegetation consists of tropical rain forests. Coconuts and bananas are cultivated. There are tin deposits on the island, and gold is mined there. The island is named after the French mariner L. A. de Bougainville.


Bougainville

 

a deep-water depression near the south-western foot of Bougainville Island (Solomon Islands) in the Pacific Ocean. Length, about 300 km; depth, to 9,140 m. It is connected to the New Britain depression on the northwest at an angle of about 70°. Bougainville is one of the few deep-water depressions situated on the inner side of the island arc rather than on the outer, or oceanic, side.

Bougainville

1
Louis Antoine de . 1729--1811, French navigator

Bougainville

2
an island in the W Pacific, in Papua New Guinea: the largest of the Solomon Islands: unilaterally declared independence in 1990; occupied by government troops in 1992, and granted autonomy in 2001. Chief town: Kieta. Area: 10 049 sq. km (3880 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
When Musingku escaped to Bougainville to avoid prosecution for fraud and contempt of court, the Kingdom of Papala assumed a territorial dimension.
Musingku carefully presented Papala as a complementary realm that did not threaten Me'ekamui but had the unique status of 'Twin Kingdom'.
A just state with just, God-fearing rulers might easily imply a just economy, just banks or just money and indeed these aspirations coalesced in the Kingdom of Papala as Musingku attempted to align his financial utopianism with Ona's Bougainvillean separatism.
While the mission of the Chosen Nation to redeem the nations is familiar from the Bible, the mission of the Kingdom of Papala will be fulfilled through an imagined global banking system.
9) As Papala performs as a superior donor state, money is again asserted as the grounds of sovereignty.
With his strong faith and belief in God, Musingku proliferates himself as being able to 'replace the conventional/corrupt system with a godly system' and defeat his fundamental enemies, PNG and Australia, who are trying to block the expansion of Musingku's Godly financial and governmental system across the world (Cox this issue; Papala Chronicles 2005/15:9).
Following and superseding Ona's attempts of nation-building, U-Vistract recast itself as a sovereign Christian nation-state, The Royal Kingdom of Papala with its own currency, the Bougainville Kina (Cox 2011:173).
This is particularly so for Musingku's Kingdom of Papala, which encompasses Tonu city that has various governmental and royal buildings, banks and its own financial system, including currency.