Parkinson's disease

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Parkinson's disease

or

Parkinsonism,

degenerative brain disorder first described by the English surgeon James Parkinson in 1817. When there is no known cause, the disease usually appears after age 40 and is referred to as Parkinson's disease; a number of genes have been found to be associated with the disease. Parkinsonism usually refers to similar symptoms resulting from head injury, encephalitis, syphilis, carbon monoxide poisoning, cerebral arteriosclerosis, or use of MPTP (a synthetic narcotic). The disorder is also termed paralysis agitans, or shaking palsy.

Parkinson's disease is a debilitating and progressive disorder in which the chemicals that facilitate electrical transmission between nerve cells are depleted. It was the first disease to be treated by drugs that replace deficient neurotransmittersneurotransmitter,
chemical that transmits information across the junction (synapse) that separates one nerve cell (neuron) from another nerve cell or a muscle. Neurotransmitters are stored in the nerve cell's bulbous end (axon).
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. Symptoms usually begin in middle to later life with trembling of the lips and hands, loss of facial expression, and muscular rigidity. As it progresses it may bring on body tremors, particularly in muscles at rest. Movements become slow and difficult; walking degrades to a shuffle. After many years physical incapacity may occur. Dementia occurs in at least 50% of the patients; depression is also common.

When drugs such as levodopa (L-Dopa) are taken orally, many of the worst symptoms are lessened. New drugs such as pramipexole (Mirapex) and ropinirole (Requip) can delay the need for levodopa. Apomorphine (Apokyn) is used treat episodes of reduced mobility in patients with advanced Parkinson's that responds less effectively to levodopa. Future approaches to treatment include a focus on early detection and slowing progression of the disease. Encouraging results have been reported from surgical insertion of a pacemakerlike device deep in the brain to suppress uncontrolled movements, but surgical transplantation of fetal dopamine-producing cells failed to show significant benefits in a controlled study. Traditional surgery can alleviate some tremors, and physical therapy may help mobility.

Parkinson's disease

[′pär·kən·sənz di‚zēz]
(medicine)
References in periodicals archive ?
Lack of public understanding can make simple things like getting the bus, paying at a checkout or even going for a coffee with friends daunting for people with Parkinson's.
Parkinson's UK highlighted the issues faced by people with Parkinson's, including getting the right financial support to help with the extra costs of living with the condition.
The two-year grant will be awarded to one neurology fellow every other year with the intent to fund individuals who have been underrepresented in Parkinson's research at academic institutions.
World Parkinson's Program is a Canadian based non-profit organization which aims to help facilitate diagnoses, provide care & essential supplies free of charge to Canadians and disadvantaged citizens suffering with Parkinson's disease globally.
Parkinson's is a condition that affects 120,000 people in the UK, and nearly 6,000 in Wales alone.
Baroness Gale, chair of the APPG for Parkinson's disease, and whose late father had Parkinson's, said: "It's been four years since standards were set by the department of health in the national service framework and two years since NICE produced the clinical guideline.
The three main features that define Parkinson's are: a tremor, which usually begins in one hand - this is the first symptom for 70 per cent of people with Parkinson's; Slowness of movement; and Stiffness or rigidity of muscles.
A team led by Gunther Deuschl, a neurologist at Christian Albrechts University in Kiel, Germany, randomly assigned 152 patients with Parkinson's disease to get surgery or to continue their medication.
Marc Parkinson's journey to CalCPA chair is a travel agent's dream.
TH is a marker for a dopaminergic stem cell phenotype, this cell type being deficient in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an idiopathic disease of the nervous system characterized clinically by parkinsonism: chronic progressive tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability.
Deep Brain Stimulation, a surgical procedure, is sometimes used to help reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD).

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