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Related to Parkinsonism: Parkinson's disease


see Parkinson's diseaseParkinson's disease
or Parkinsonism,
degenerative brain disorder first described by the English surgeon James Parkinson in 1817. When there is no known cause, the disease usually appears after age 40 and is referred to as Parkinson's disease; a number of genes have
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(also Parkinson’s disease), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system characterized by motor disorders. First described in 1817 by the English physician J. Parkinson under the name “shaking palsy,” it is one of the most common neurological diseases, primarily of older people. Its causes are diverse and include encephalitides, cerebral atherosclerosis, head injury, and poisoning by barbiturates or carbon monoxide. The cause cannot be determined in almost half the cases.

In parkinsonism, there is a deficiency of dopamine, a product of catecholamine metabolism, in the subcortical structures of the brain, which results in disruption of the balance between the main systems of brain transmitter substances and in lack of control of movements. Morphological study of the brains of those afflicted reveals destruction of substantia negra cells in the subcortical structures. The principal symptoms are a constant tremor of arms and legs, a masklike facial expression, salivation, increased tonus of all the muscles and general rigidity, and slowness of movements, in particular, a slow gait with small steps.

Treatment with L-dopa, which normalizes the concentration of dopamine, is effective but causes side effects in some patients. Central-acting cholinolytics are used in the initial stages. Surgery is indicated if drug therapy is ineffective. Brain surgery is performed by the stereotaxic technique, which involves destruction of a small area in the subcortical structures. It is quite safe and usually relieves all symptoms of parkinsonism for many years.


Kandel’, E. I. Parkinsonizm i ego khirurgicheskoe lechenie. Moscow, 1965. (Bibliography.)
Cooper, J. Parkinsonism: Its Medical and Surgical Therapy. Springfield, Ill., 1961.



A clinical state characterized by tremor at a rate of three to eight tremors per second, with “pill-rolling” movements of the thumb common, muscular rigidity, dyskinesia, hypokinesia, and reduction in number of spontaneous and autonomic movements; produces a masked facies, disturbances of posture, gait, balance, speech, swallowing, and muscular strength. Also known as paralysis agitans; Parkinson's disease.
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Immunohistochemical and subcellular localization of Parkin protein: absence of protein in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism patients.
Also at baseline, 199 were considered normal, with a score of 3 or lower; 306 had mild parkinsonian symptoms, with a mean UPDRS3 score of 10; and 76 qualified as having diagnosable parkinsonism with a mean UPDRS3 of 19.
Technician-assessed controls with signs suggesting parkinsonism were subsequently assessed by a neurologist.
Patients with either predominantly cerebellar signs or Parkinsonism are regarded as distinct subtypes of MSA and are designated as MSA-C and MSA-P, respectively.
Rapidly progressive Parkinsonism in a self-reported user of ecstasy and other drugs.
Rocca and colleagues reported the same general trends for parkinsonism.
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In most welding fume cases, the plaintiffs have failed to convince the trier of fact of a connection between the exposure to welding fumes containing manganese and Parkinson's disease or some other neurological disorder such as parkinsonism or manganism.
The other 2 patients experienced substantial improvements in strength and functional ability, living independently and working at 1 year; however, both continued to experience persistent parkinsonism, tremor, and fatigue.
Examples of bradykinesia include parkinsonism, tremors, and rigidity.
Surgical removal of the ovaries may put women at an increased risk of parkinsonism, a group of diseases characterized by tremors, stiffness, and poor balance, of which Parkinson's disease is the most common.
MIAMI BEACH -- Bilateral oophorectomy in premenopausal women is associated with an almost doubled risk of later developing both parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease.