Parochial Schools

Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.
Related to Parochial Schools: religious school, Parochial Education

Parochial Schools


(tserkovno-prikhodskie shkoly), primary schools in prerevolutionary Russia affiliated with church parishes. The schools basically pursued the interests of the church, instructing young people in the faith. After the School Reform of 1804, parish schools (prikhodskie uchilishcha) were founded in several cities and villages. A network of schools administered by the Synod continued to develop in the first half of the 19th century. In the mid-1860’s, there were 21,420 parochial schools in Russia, with an enrollment of 412,000 pupils.

After the Zemstvo Reform of 1864, the tsarist government was disturbed by the growth of the zemstvo schools and through the counterreforms of the 1880’s and 1890’s granted special patronage to parochial schools. In 1884 the Rules Concerning Parochial Schools established one-class (two-year) and two-class (four-year) parochial schools. In the early 20th century these classes were reorganized as three-and five-year programs. The subjects taught in the one-class schools were theology, liturgical singing, the reading of Church Slavonic and Civil printed texts, writing, and arithmetic. The two-class schools also provided instruction in history. Reading material was religious and monarchist in content. The School Council of the Synod controlled parochial schools through parochial school councils. The instructors included priests, deacons, d’iachki, and teachers who had usually graduated from parochial teacher-training schools and eparchial schools.

Between 1885 and 1902, annual appropriations for parochial schools grew from 55,000 to 10.3 million rubles, while 5 million rubles were spent in 1902 on all other primary schools. The schools themselves increased in number from 5,517 in 1885 to 42,696 in 1905, when they constituted 46.5 precent of all primary schools. They subsequently decreased in number, dropping to 40,530 in 1915, constituting 32.8 percent of all primary schools.

After the October Socialist Revolution, parochial schools were abolished as a result of the closing of all religious schools and the creation of a single state socialist school system.


Chekhov, N. V. Narodnoe obrazovanie v Rossii s 60-kh gg. XIX V. Moscow, [1912.]
Konstantinov, N. A., and V. la. Struminskii. Ocherki po istorii nachal’nogo obrazovaniia v Rossii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1953. Pages 84–153, 165–93.


References in periodicals archive ?
As part of the survey, Gallup asks parents of K-12 students whether their oldest child attends public, private or parochial school or is home-schooled.
Sister Bayeur said the fact that the three parochial schools were all built in the same area is strange, but originally each school drew from a different ethnicity.
Meyer, who attended a parochial school himself, says that he's not counting them out.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, on a wave of anti-Catholic sentiment, many states had passed prohibitions, constitutional and legislative, against funds for nonpublic schools, laws aimed at Catholic parochial schools.
It has to be this way because, as a parochial school, we are constantly referring interested students to it so that they can become better informed as to what we do here on a daily basis.
I support the concept of public schools, but my husband and I sent our four children to a parochial school because of our religious beliefs.
Justice Clarence Thomas's plurality opinion changes that standard, overturning two previous high court rulings which had restricted tax-funded aid to parochial schools.
Ten years later the Catholic bishops decided to launch a major campaign to secure government aid for school choice, including the use of vouchers to provide tax funds for parochial schools.
Felton (another five-to-four decision) that federal tax dollars may be used to pay teachers who conduct remedial classes in parochial schools as well as those in public schools.
Parochial schools were not part of our study, and no data exist involving parochial schools.
Likewise, statutes providing for reimbursement or grants to parents of parochial school children for tuition at parochial schools have been struck down in the past (Committee for Public Education v.
Fortunately, the courts seem to be against vouchers for private, parochial schools.