Of the toads that had parotoid glands expressed, microscopic examination revealed the majority of the vesicles in the glands had emptied significantly with little to no contents remaining.
2006a, b) were utilized because of their abundance, large size, and prominent parotoid glands.
Parotoid glands were expressed in live animals using a transcutaneous electrical stimulation device following Grant & Land (2002).
Following formalin fixation the parotoid glands were excised and soaked in Davidson's solution (Kiernan 2000) for 12 hours then rinsed with deionized water.
Parotoid glands from both species produced a cream colored viscous fluid that was easily collected.
Morphology of the large granular alveoli of the parotoid glands in toad (Bufo ictericus) before and after compression.
Transcutaneous electrical stimulation is a viable non-lethal method for the extraction and collection of anuran parotoid gland secretion.