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Related to Participle: present participle


Participles are words formed from verbs that can function as adjectives or gerunds or can be used to form the continuous tenses and the perfect tenses of verbs. There are two participle forms: the present participle and the past participle.
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a verb form combining the properties of both verb and adjective and expressing adjectivally an action or state as a property of a person or object, as in pishushchii (“writing”), podniatyi (“raised”), and sgibaemyi (“flexible”). In Russian, the verbal nature of a participle is evidenced by the presence of the categories of voice and aspect and by the retention of patterns of government adjoinment (primykanie); this is seen by comparing dolgo rabotaet v pole (“he works long in the field”) and dolgo rabotaiushchii v pole (“the man working long in the field”). A participle does not form a sentence, however, except in the case of the short forms, and lacks the categories of mood and person. It possesses the category of relative tense, which refers not to the moment of speech, as with a verb, but to the time of the main action as expressed by the conjugated verb of the predicate. A participle resembles an adjective in having the agreement categories of gender, number, and case. Like adjectives, participles have the syntactic function of defining, which may be parenthetic (parenthetic attribute construction). Participles may undergo adjectivization, that is, become adjectives.

Participles are present in all the Indo-European languages and are a special grammatical subclass in other language families, such as Finno-Ugric, Altaic, and Semitic. In contemporary linguistics there is no unanimously held opinion concerning the grammatical nature of the participle.


References in periodicals archive ?
Like other Romance languages such as Portuguese, the passive participle (henceforth PTPASS) exhibits gender and number inflection in agreement with the subject.
The active sense of the participle in the name of the Anatolian Storm-god is noteworthy, but not remarkable for a past participle.
The aim of Chinese participle algorithm system is to establish an open and general modern written Chinese participle algorithm system.
The differences between the stative and dynamic meanings of the future infinitive and participle constructions in Livonian should also be compared with the Latvian passive and active voice constructions.
Classes of deverbal derivatives singled out in Section 3 in the context of comparing their productivity make up twenty part-of-speech oppositions of a noun and an adjective or participle inside shared-root deverbal families.
Our next group includes compounds whose head is a past participle (Table 5.
Auxiliary verbs take the present form or the past participle form rather than the past tense form.
Irregular verbs may also form the past tense and the past participle in unpredictable ways.
There were 6 instances of time/reason blends (conveyed by only two present participles: having regard (4x) and disregarding (2x)) and a single instance of the semantic relation of means (conveyed by the present participle using).
I take the risk of using the term "Participial Perception Verb Complements," although as we shall see the relationship between the perception verb, the NP and the participle needs to be examined more closely.
In my article on relational welfare for Soundings I wrote about the principles that would underpin a relational approach to public service, and the work Participle has initiated with families suffering from the most entrenched deprivation: financial, social and psychological.
The subject of this article is what has been called 'adjectival periphrasis' in studies on the Ancient Greek participle (see Bjorck 1940 for the term 'adjektivische Periphrase').

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