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Participles are words formed from verbs that can function as adjectives or gerunds or can be used to form the continuous tenses and the perfect tenses of verbs. There are two participle forms: the present participle and the past participle.
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a verb form combining the properties of both verb and adjective and expressing adjectivally an action or state as a property of a person or object, as in pishushchii (“writing”), podniatyi (“raised”), and sgibaemyi (“flexible”). In Russian, the verbal nature of a participle is evidenced by the presence of the categories of voice and aspect and by the retention of patterns of government adjoinment (primykanie); this is seen by comparing dolgo rabotaet v pole (“he works long in the field”) and dolgo rabotaiushchii v pole (“the man working long in the field”). A participle does not form a sentence, however, except in the case of the short forms, and lacks the categories of mood and person. It possesses the category of relative tense, which refers not to the moment of speech, as with a verb, but to the time of the main action as expressed by the conjugated verb of the predicate. A participle resembles an adjective in having the agreement categories of gender, number, and case. Like adjectives, participles have the syntactic function of defining, which may be parenthetic (parenthetic attribute construction). Participles may undergo adjectivization, that is, become adjectives.

Participles are present in all the Indo-European languages and are a special grammatical subclass in other language families, such as Finno-Ugric, Altaic, and Semitic. In contemporary linguistics there is no unanimously held opinion concerning the grammatical nature of the participle.


References in periodicals archive ?
The latter structure is unique to Surgut, because the person marking on the passive past participle does not indicate the agent, as would be expected for passive participles in attributive function, but instead indicates the patient.
The fifth level contains the past participle used both as adjective and noun and the sixth, and final, level of integration is the formation of the superlative absolute in both nominal and adjectival form.
And Honigmann's earlier theories about the origins of Q--theories now partially and hesitantly retracted, but not conclusively rebutted--would have put extra strain on our ability to believe that Q exactly reproduced the pattern of phonetically [t] preterite and past participle endings of Shakespeare's foul papers: if Q was set by three compositors from a transcript prepared by two scribes, we would hardly expect all five agents to be so conservative, particularly when Q displays so many other nonauthorial features.
Most past participles end in -ed - for example, "decided," "enacted," and "witnessed.
It is used in different combinations and meanings: lid combines with supine and infinitive, active and passive past participles, enters into a particular modal construction ([N.
In this paper I exemplify various types of renderings and their element order found in these Old English versions of the Gospels: the interchangeability between -enne and -ende forms, imperatives, passive constructions, simple and phrasal verbs, simple forms and periphrastic forms, beon/wesan or habban with the past participle, "impersonal" constructions, the use of auxiliaries, or the like.
This paper examines the use of both words in the epic closely and concludes: 1) p[bar{i}]ta is the past participle of the verb [surd]p[bar{a}], "drink," and refers to the treatment of "iron" with a liquid bath, i.
Such forms containing two past participles occur marginally also in Estonian (Kehayov 2004 : 820) and usually convey what Aikhenvald (2004 : 157-158) calls 'conceptual distance'.
Past participles of class V are more numerous in terms of unique forms than those of class IV.
Turning now to -ed, it is a fact that in English this morpheme is used to derive not only past-tense forms of verbs but past participles as well.
Yet, later recordings made in the 1990s show that there are even more markers for the past participles (for example, see Mets 2000; 2004a; 2004b : 660-662; Iva 2002a : 96-97).
The definition of elimination can be extended however to include some less regular cases to the effect that forms such as Anglian past participles in classes VI and VII (such as befoen, geseen) can be interpreted as instances where Vernerian alternations were lost.