Paul Kruger

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Kruger, Paul

(Stephanas Johannes Paulus) (kro͞o`gər, Afrikaans stāfä`nəs yōhä`nəs pou`ləs krü`gər), 1825–1904, South African Transvaal statesman, known as Oom Paul. As a child he accompanied (1836) his family northward from the Cape Colony in the Great Trek that was eventually to cross the Vaal River and establish the Dutch-speaking republic of TransvaalTransvaal
, former province, NE South Africa. With the new constitution of 1994, it was divided into Eastern Transvaal (now Mpumalanga), Northern Transvaal (now Limpopo), Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Veereeniging (now Gauteng), and part of North West prov.
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 (1852). Kruger's life was closely tied to the development of the country; he was a pioneer, soldier, farmer, and politician. The Transvaal was annexed by Great Britain in 1877. Kruger at first cooperated with the British but shortly thereafter was dismissed because of his demands for retrocession. He was one of the triumvirate (with Piet Joubert and Martinius Pretorius) who negotiated the Pretoria agreement with the British (1881) granting the Boers (Afrikaners) independence. Kruger was elected president in 1883 and reelected in 1888, 1893, and 1898. His policy was one of continual resistance to the British, who came to be personified in South Africa by Cecil RhodesRhodes, Cecil John
, 1853–1902, British imperialist and business magnate. Business Career

The son of a Hertfordshire clergyman, he first went to South Africa in 1870, joining his oldest brother, Herbert, on a cotton plantation in Natal.
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. Colonization of Rhodesia N of the Transvaal and the increasing importance of gold mining merely brought much greater resistance on Kruger's part to Rhodes's dream of a unified South Africa. In the 1890s, Kruger adopted a stringent policy against the enfranchisement of the Uitlanders who were settling in the Transvaal. The Jameson Raid (see Jameson, Sir Leander StarrJameson, Sir Leander Starr,
1853–1917, British colonial administrator and statesman in South Africa. He went to Kimberley (1878) as a physician, became associated with Cecil Rhodes in his colonizing ventures, and was appointed (1891) administrator of Mashonaland. On Dec.
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) into the Transvaal (Dec., 1895), undertaken with Rhodes's knowledge, created an international crisis. The Kaiser congratulated Kruger (in the "Kruger telegram") for the successful repulsion of the British, with the implication that Germany had a right to interfere in the Transvaal. The message caused great indignation in England. Kruger fought in the early stages of the South African WarSouth African War
or Boer War,
1899–1902, war of the South African Republic (Transvaal) and the Orange Free State against Great Britain. Background
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, but in 1900 he went to Europe on a Dutch cruiser in a vain effort to enlist aid for his country. He died an exile in Switzerland.


See his memoirs (tr. 1902, repr. 1969); biography by M. Nathan (1941); studies by J. S. Marais (1962), D. M. Schreuder (1969), and C. T. Gordan (1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
The epic consists of 37 parts, which explore the rise and fall of Paul Kruger and in Grendon's mind, the Boer republics.
1 -- color) UCLA quarterback Ben Olson is sacked by Utah defensive lineman Koa Misi and defensive end Paul Kruger, top right, for a 2-yard loss in the second quarter.
Makganye, 6 May 1997, Zeerust; see also Bernard Mbenga, "The Flogging of Chief Kgamanyane by Commandant Paul Kruger, Saulspoort, April 1870", Journal of Southern African Studies 23 (1) (1997): 127-40; Andre Du Toit, "No Chosen People," American Historical Review, 88 #4, (October 1983); Charles Hooper, Brief Authority (London, 1960).
Stephen Paul Kruger, father of the groom, served as best man.
The cortege will pass near the one-time home of Paul Kruger, the father of the Afrikaner nation.
Fined Cleveland LB Paul Kruger $7,875 for pulling off an opponent's helmet and Washington LS Nick Sundberg $7,875 for unnecessary roughness against Green Bay's M.
Jooste, who is co-owner of Pam Golding Properties (PGP) Namibia together with partner, Paul Kruger, was positive about the prospects of the franchise despite scandals associated with it in the past.
RB Willis McGahee (neck) and LB Paul Kruger (knee) are questionable.
Paul Kruger (65) and Mark Oglethorp (51) were also in the runs for the Mid Wales men.
Utah defensive ends Koa Misi and Paul Kruger against OSU tackles Andy Levitre and Mike Remmers, with help from the tight end.
Starting the day unbeaten and still in second, Newtown turned in a disappointing batting display that saw them make just 135, extras top scoring on 32 while Paul Kruger made 27.